A slum is an extremely inhabited urban residential sector consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in an exceedingly situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, colonized primarily by impoverished persons. While slums differ in size and different characteristics, most lack reliable sanitation services, the offer of unpolluted water, reliable electricity, law enforcement, and different basic services.
Today, the present population growth is outpacing the speed at which cities will answer the necessity for housing. This is often the very condition underneath which slums thrive and grow out of management.
Dharavi is vicinity in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is regarded as one of the biggest slums in Asia. Dharavi has a neighborhood of simply over 2.1 sq. kilometers (0.81 sq mi; 520 acres) and a population of concerning 700,000. With a population density of over 277,136/km2 (717,780/sq mi), Dharavi is one of the densest areas within the world.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES :
The aim of this project is to determine the basic problems of any slum. We have chosen the slum of city Mumbai: DHARAVI.
- To gather information about the slum living.
- To be aware of livelihood of the slum people
- To understand the basic necessities of slum people.
- To recognize basic problems that slums face in day to day life.
- To spread awareness about the basic slum problems.
METHOD AND METHODOLOGY :
The method used to make this project is a reporting method. A report is made on the issues faced by the
slum of Mumbai. To make this report we have used internet to do our research. By using the internet we
came across great deal of data which helped us make the best report on the slums. The internet
provided us with real life experiences of people who lived in slums at a point. The report is created on
the basis of various interviews, videos on the reality of slums, a survey made by some people on slums
etc. The report covers the following the problems:
1. Sanitation problem
4. Poor housing conditions
6. Safety and violence
7. Health and well being
8. Overcrowded homes
DETAIL REPORT OF PROJECT :
The Dharavi slums face tons of issues like noise, water, and air pollution; it additionally has no waste or drainage systems.
- Sanitation problem
Dharavi has severe issues with public health. In addition, with the restricted toilets they need, they’re very filthy and weakened to the point of being unsafe. Mahim Creek is a native watercourse that’s wide utilized by local residents for urination and defecation inflicting the unfold of contagious diseases. The open sewers within the town drain to the creek inflicting a spike in water pollutants, septic conditions, and foul odors. because of the air pollutants, diseases like lung cancer, TB, and respiratory disease are common among residents. There are government proposals with reference to improving Dharavi’s sanitation problems. The residents have a neighborhood where they wash their garments in water that individuals defecate in. This spreads the quantity of illness as doctors need to cope with over 4,000 cases of infectious disease on a daily basis. there’s also an average of one bathroom per 500 individuals
Dharavi has toughened a long history of epidemics and natural disasters, generally with vital loss of lives. The primary plague to devastate Dharavi, alongside different settlements of Mumbai happened in 1896, once nearly 1/2 the population perished. A series of plagues and different epidemics continued to have an effect on Dharavi, and Mumbai generally, for the subsequent 25 years, with high rates of mortality. Dysentery epidemics are common throughout the years and explained by the high population density of Dharavi. Different epidemics reported embodying infectious disease, cholera, leprosy, meiosis, and poliomyelitis, through recent years. As an example, in 1986, youngster’s infectious disease epidemic was reported, wherever most patients were residents of Dharavi. Typical patients to arrive in hospitals were in late and important care condition, and therefore the mortality rates were abnormally high. In recent years, cases of drug-resistant T.B. are reported in Dharavi.
Due to lack of skills and education also as competitive job markets. Several slum dwellers face high rates of unemployment. The limit of job opportunities causes several of them to use themselves within the informal economy, within the slum or in developed urban areas close to the slum. This can typically be the licit informal economy or illicit informal economy while not operating contract or any social insurance. A number of them are seeking jobs at an equivalent time and a few of these can eventually realize jobs in formal economies once gaining some professional skills in informal sectors.
Examples of licit informal economy embody street peddling, home enterprises, product assembly, and packaging, creating garlands and embroideries, domestic work, shoe sharpening or repair, driving manual rickshaws, construction employees or manually driven provision, and handicrafts production. In some slums, individuals sort and recycle trash of various types (from house garbage to electronics) for a living – merchandising either the odd usable merchandise or denudation broken product for components or raw materials.
Examples of illicit informal economy embrace banned substance and weapons trafficking, drug or moonshine/changaa production, vice crime and gambling – all sources of risks to the individual, families, and society.
- Poor housing conditions
Poor infrastructure forces the poor to adapt to conditions on the far side his or her management. Poor families that can’t afford transportation, or those that merely lack any sort of cheap public transportation, typically end up in squat settlements within walking distance or close enough to the place of their employment. Poor quality, unpaved streets encourage slums; the tenth increase in made-up all-season roads reduces slum incidence rate by regarding 0.35%. Cheap conveyance and economic infrastructure empower poor individuals to maneuver and think about housing choices apart from their current slump.
Urban poorness encourages the formation and demand for slum with a fast shift from rural to urban life, poorness migrates to urban areas. The urban poor arrives with hope and extremely very little of anything. He or she usually has no access to shelter, basic urban services, and social amenities. Slums are typically the sole choice for the urban poor
- Safety and violence
Some suggest that crime is one of the most concerns in slums. Empirical information suggests crime rates are higher in some slums than in non-slums, with slum homicides alone reducing the life expectancy of a resident in a Dharavi slum by seven years than for a resident in close non-slum. In some cases, officers have sent within the military to regulate slum criminal violence involved drugs and weapons. Rape is another serious issue associated with crime in slums. In slums, as an example, one-fourth of all young women are raped every year. Rather crime is one of the symptoms of slum dwelling; therefore slums incorporate more victims than criminals. Consequently, slums altogether don’t have consistently high crime rates; slums have the worst crime rates in sectors maintaining the influence of illicit economy – like drug traffic, brewing, vice crime, and gambling –. Usually, in such circumstance, multiple gangs fight for management over revenue. Usually, police can’t scale back crime because, due to ineffective urban planning and governance, slums set inefficient crime interference system. Such issues aren’t primarily because of community indifference. Leads and knowledge intelligence from slums are rare, streets are slender and a possible death traps to patrol, and lots of within the slum community have an inherent distrust of authorities from worry starting from eviction to assortment on unpaid utility bills to general law and order. Women in slums are at bigger risk of physical and sexual violence. Slums are usually non-secured areas and ladies usually risk sexual violence once they walk alone in slums late in the dead of night
- Health and well being
Because unplanned settlements are generally not connected to basic services like clean water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities, residents are at great risk of acquiring water-borne and metabolism diseases.
High population density, lack of correct bathrooms and shut proximity of homes permit diseases to unfold quickly. This creates a true risk for big populations UN agency are typically unable to access adequate health facilities to induce treatment in time.
- Overcrowded homes
Overcrowding is another characteristic of slums. Several dwellings are single space units, with high occupancy rates. Every home is also cohabited by multiple families. 5 and more persons might share a one-room unit; space is employed for cookery, sleeping, and living. Overcrowding is additionally seen close to sources of drinkable, cleaning, and sanitation where one bathroom could serve dozens of families.
However, the density and neighborhood effects of slum populations may provide a chance to focus on health interventions
ANALYSIS OF DATA :
BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE :