Two movies a week at the theatre, getting together with friends and relatives, playing cards, listening to the radio, and maybe reading were the only available outlets for the consumer to pass their time before the introduction of television. By the late ’70s consumer demands were becoming strident aspirations and expectations began outgrowing available options The culmination of this was in 1982(when the color television was introduced and the network was partially expanded) and 1984 (with the one transmitter a day expansion) However these changes perhaps were more the results of political considerations rather than meeting the consumer demand for change.
The magazine boom of the mid-70s had limited impact as it was catering to more or less a homogeneous group of people dictated by language, style, and content. But for the first time in the country, TV a single medium was reaching out nationally. Radio while the forerunner did not have the same impact. The advantage of TV since 1984 was that it could be received throughout the country. It therefore operated as a catalyst in defining social moves of the times. Being a truly mass medium it drew viewership from all stratas of the society. Each individual picked what he or she wanted from the medium. The advent of satellite and cable TV has now totally changed the situation. With satellite,, programs are beamed to many countries at the same time.
Operating in a protected economy Indian advertisers have no market outside the borders of India. But consumers have no such restrictions They are more happy to adopt the latest entertainment media. Consumers now demand quality as never before. The best available internationally is preferred to India as the economy liberalizes. An even more suitable change is imminent. Consumers have begun to think internationally and over time behave internationally.
Consumers and technology are marching hand in hand today. It is thus incumbent upon the marketers, manufacturers, advertisers, and agencies to understand this new consumer and keep pace or face the alternative of being left behind. To establish their standing in the market they have to be constantly on the search for customers and have to find out what consumers buy, how much can they pay and what is being made available to them by the competitors not only in India but internationally too.
Color Television Industry
Television has recorded phenomenal growth in India. It has become an accepted part of our daily life in a very short span. Television is affecting customers, domestic routines, educational techniques, and entertainment patterns. In the recent past television was a luxury item meant for rich people only but nowadays, it is considered a necessity by most people. However, the role of audio-visual media in communication for a country like India with a large population, high illiteracy, and vast area assumes critical importance and television can be regarded as a harbinger of social, economic, and cultural development. Television combines all the benefits of the radio, newspaper, and cinema and therefore it is the most popular media for education, information, and entertainment. Before understanding any market adventure, it is important to understand the industry. Consequently, it is helpful to study the background of the TV industry of India briefly.
The first demonstration of actual television was made in 1925-27 by J.Lbaird and C.F Jenkins. The black-and-white TV broadcast was introduced in the UK in 1937. A color sequential system developed by Columbia Broadcasting Service was adopted in the U.S.A. in 1950 for colored T.V. transmission. After a great deal of internal debate, the government of India decided to introduce television in the year 1959. Commercial production of T.V. sets was started in 1970. Later on doordarshan stations was set up in Bombay(1972), Amritsar(1973), Srinagar(1973), Calcutta(1975), Madras(1975) and Lucknow(1975).
Historical Development In India
The 80s saw the industry growing at a fast rate of 30% per annum. The years following the 1982 Asian Games saw an exponential rise in growth, which coincided with the setting up of Doordarshan Kendras in many parts of the country. Moreover, the government adopted a policy of encouraging the sector, which saw the birth of many TV companies namely Weston, Dyanora, and Televista. Even state government-owned companies like Uptron, Keltron, and Meltron came up. By 1989, there were over 200 TV companies with sales of 5.2mn sets.
The early years of the ’90s decade saw TV sales falling to 4mn units due to a high tax regime. However, with the onset of the liberalization era, the year 1993 saw a reversal in fortunes for the industry with both import duties and excise duties being slashed. Accompanying it was a rise in the general purchasing power of the populace, a greater variety in TV software (with the coming in of foreign satellite channels), and a strong rise in replacement demand. Sales touched almost 9mn units in 1998. This period also saw the entry of MNCs.
The years 1998 and 1999 have seen events like, the large pay-out to the government staff through the implementation of the 5th Pay Commission, the World Cup 1999, and the success of the rabi crop. These events have changed the face of the CTV industry, which realized a growth of 29-30% over the last two years. In fact, for LG, (official sponsor of the World Cup 1999) this was the most successful brand-building exercise, as the company saw a 95% growth in 1999.
Title – A Project Report On Consumer Buying Behavior For Colour Televisions
Author – Shikha Tandon
College – Lovely Institute Of Management Phagwara
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