11th CommerceEnvironment Education EVSHSC Projects

A Comparison On Species Changes in 5 Years & Increased Xerophytic Species


A xerophyte from a Greek phuton plant is a species of plant life that has heterogeneity to live on in surroundings with moderate water, such as a barren region or ice- or snow-covered vicinity in the Arctic. Some famous examples of xerophytes are cactus, pineapple, and some Gymnosperm plants. In this project, we shall discuss a comparison of the species that have declined over the last five years with those that have increased reveals that more xerophytic species are on the increase.

The structural elements and vital chemical techniques of xerophytes are variously tailored to preserve water, additionally frequent to store massive portions of water, throughout dry periods. Other species are capable of continuing to exist lengthy durations of severe dryness or desiccation of their tissues, at some stage in which their metabolic recreation may additionally efficiently shut down. Plants with such morphological and physiological variations are xeromorphic. Xerophytes such as cacti are capable of withstanding prolonged durations of dry stipulations as they have deep-spreading roots and the potential to keep water. The leaves are waxy and thorny that preventing loss of water and moisture. Even their fleshy stems can save water.


This project aims to gather information about a comparison of the species that have declined over the last five years with those that have increased reveals that more xerophytic species are on the increase.

There are essential objectives for this project.  They are listed below.


  •  To understand xerophytic species
  •  To know the difference between other species and xerophyte species
  •  To understand the unique qualities of the xerophyte species
  •  To understand the characteristics and nature of xerophyte species
  •  To ascertain any doubts regarding xerophytic species


The method used to gather the required information on the project is an internet survey method that falls under the secondary data collection method. The Internet has extensive knowledge on this subject. It has a vast collection of data on xerophytic species. The survey for this project has unveiled information that is covered within major few points. They are listed below and explained in a detailed report of the project.

  • What is a xerophytic species?
  • Characteristics and qualities of xerophytic species
  • Special examples of xerophytes
  • Increased densities of xerophytic species.


  • What is a xerophytic species?

The term xerophyte refers to a plant species that has developed over time to live on in dry regions, like deserts, with little water. Xerophytes have tailored to be capable of preserving onto massive amounts of water for a longer duration of time or restrict water loss. Without these capabilities, the plant life would die, as their arid surroundings do no longer grant adequate water to preserve life.

While hydrophytes dangle out close to water and macrophytes on land with lots of organic matter and moisture, xerophytes live where annual rainfalls are measured in merely a few inches. Xerophyte barren region plants, such as cacti, possess diversifications that permit them not only to continue to exist in arid zones, however but also to thrive. Their low humidity and mineral and vitamin needs, the capability to resist burning sun, and chilly nights make xerophytic backyard layout a little maintained way of conserving sources in the landscape. Xerophyte barren region plant life is appropriate for USDA plant hardiness zones eight to thirteen. However, these amazingly adaptive plant life can every so often develop in decreased zones with some protection from cold and extra moisture.

Xerophytic plant life may also have similar shapes, forms, and structures and appear very similar, even if the plant life is no longer very intently related, through a procedure referred to as convergent evolution. For example, some species of cacti, which developed solely in the Americas, can also show up similar to euphorbias, which are allotted worldwide. An unrelated species of caudiciform plant life with swollen bases that are used to keep water may additionally show some similarities. Under stipulations of water scarcity, the seeds of one-of-a-kind xerophytic plant life behave differently, which skill that they have specific rates of germination on account that water availability is a primary limiting factor. These dissimilarities are due to herbal choice, and eco-adaptation as the seeds and plant life of every species evolve to suit their surroundings.

  • Characteristics and qualities of xerophytic species

  1. Thick cuticle.
  2. Stomatal closure.
  3. Reduction in stomata.
  4. Stomata concealed in crypts or cavities in the leaf surface has less disclosure to wind and sun.
  5. Reduction in the dimension of transpiration surface (lower leaf only).
  6. Increased water storage.
  7. Thicker leaves and stems, or leaves decreased in, or leaves drop off in the course of the dry season.
  8. Leaves blanketed with silvery hairs creates wind destroy & mild reflective surface.
  9. Deep taproots or extensive spreading fibrous roots close to the soil surface.
  10. Low boom form reduces H2O loss from wind.
  11. Reduced existence cycles.
  • Special examples of xerophytes

  1. Acacia
  2. Joshua tree
  3. Agave
  4. Eriogonum
  5. Arctic willow
  6. Euphorbia
  7. Cactus family
  8. Pine
  9. Tea plant
  10. Prickly pear
  • Increased densities of xerophytic species.

There are three reasons for the increased densities of xerophytic species. The three goals are anatomical.


The root system is very developed adequately with extensive branching and frequently more extended than the shoot system. Root hairs and root caps are very sufficiently designed.


Mostly they are stunted, woody challenging, and protected with thick bark. In some xerophytes, stem turns into the underground. In some plants, life stem turns into fleshy, green, leaf-like phylloclades included with spines, Eg: Opuntia. Stems are typically protected with the aid of hairs and or waxy coatings.


Leaves are remarkably a lot decreased small scale like and now and then modified into spines to limit the rate of transpiration. The lamina may additionally be lengthy slim needle-like, or divided into many leaflets as Eg: Acacia. Foliage leaves come to be thick fleshy and succulent or difficult and leathery in texture. E.g., Aloe. Leaf surfaces are shinily glazed to replicate mild and heat. Eg. Calotropis.


After analyzing the gathered data,

The sorts of variations possessed by using xerophytes are extensive! We’ll center of attention right here on vast alterations shared with the aid of quite a few distinctive species. The first transformation has to do with their stomata and restricting water depletion. Stomata are the microscopic openings in leaves that allow gas exchange. Think of them as pores for plants. And simply like human pores launch sweat, plant stomata launch to water in the shape of water vapor. Certain xerophytes have a waxy overlaying over their stomata, as a consequence curbing water loss. Others incorporate very few stomata or stomata that solely open at night time when it is cooler. Each of these diversifications limits water loss and permits the plant to live to tell the tale in dry environments. An instance of this type of plant is Adam’s Needle. This plant can live on in harsh dry, barren region environments due to the fact of its waxy covering. The 2nd kind of adaptation is centered on storing water as an alternative to merely limiting water loss. To do this, plant life has developed succulent leaves, plant stems, or tubers that can keep water when it can’t be received immediately from the environment.


To successfully conclude my findings,

Some Xerophytic plant life sits out a drought. They can nonetheless extract water from the soil. They may also have very salty cell sap and consequently, shallow water conceivable in the roots; they can also have significant or deep roots or may additionally choose up the slightest dew and continue to exist on that.

Xerophytes are a team of plant life who have tailored to residing in surroundings with very little water. Xerophytes typically stay in areas such as deserts, mountain ranges, or arctic regions. They stay in areas where there is very little water, or the rate of evaporation is rapid. Xerophytes can stay in severe heat, as warmness reasons speedy evaporation, consequently lowering the provider of water. Xerophytes are continually breathing for the duration of the night time and day, and their photosynthesis additionally takes vicinity partly in the day and partly in the night, as they endure CAM photosynthesis. Xerophytes will be in opposition with different organisms such as different plant life and animals for vitamins and water, as water is so scarce in their environment.


The discussion with my guidance counselor on this project, it is revealed:

Cactus and agaves are two xerophyte species that can flourish in dry areas in mild of the reality that their stems and leaves are thick and can keep water. Instances of xerophyte plant life include Joshua tree, thorny pear, the tea plant, kalanchoe, acacia, tillandsia, and Nerium oleander.


After discussing this project with friends and peers, they have individual opinions and recommendations. They are given below:

There should be a botany lesson or lecture on this topic.

There should be a seminar in schools about various species and their distinctive qualities

There should be a special seminar arranged by the government to enlighten the farmers about such species.


My profound gratitude to all the faculty members of the Department, for their timely assistance and encouragement throughout my research work.

I duly acknowledge the encouragement and support from the research scholars in the Department, and all my colleagues and friends.

It gives me immense pleasure to take the opportunity to all the people who are directly or indirectly involved in the completion of my project based on A comparison of the species that have declined over the last five years with those that have increased reveals that more xerophytic species are on the increase.

With deep reverence, I offer my deepest gratitude _____, without whom this project could not have been fulfilled.

Lastly, I thank Almighty, my parents, family members, friends, and teachers for their constant encouragement and support, without which this project would not be possible.

Name of School/College


  • https://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-xerophytes.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerophyte#Types
  • http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plants/xerophytes/xerophyte-meaning-and-characteristics-plants-botany/75464
  • https://www.easybiologyclass.com/xerophytes-ecological-adaptations-with-ppt/
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