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Automatic Irrigation System Using Soil Moisture Sensor


The need for efficient water management in agricultural fields has become increasingly important. An automatic irrigation system on sensing soil moisture content abstract has gained attention as a resourceful solution. This article delves into the design and implementation of an automatic irrigation system using soil moisture sensor circuit diagrams, components, and benefits.

The Principle Behind the Project

The core idea behind this soil moisture sensor project is to automate the irrigation process, thus reducing human intervention and saving water. The system employs an 8051 microcontroller that is programmed to collect data from the soil moisture sensor and then operate a water pump motor accordingly.

Hardware Specifications

  • 8051 Microcontroller: Acts as the brain of the system.
  • Soil Moisture Sensor: Measures the moisture level in the soil.
  • Pump Motor: Pumps water into the irrigation system.
  • Relay and Relay Driver IC: Controls the water pump.
  • Other Components: Resistors, capacitors, transistors, cables and connectors, diodes, PCB and breadboards, LED, transformer/adapter, push buttons, and switches.

Software Specifications

The system is programmed using Embedded C in the Keil ┬ÁVision IDE.

How It Works

Two metallic rods are inserted into the soil to serve as a moisture sensor. The sensor sends signals to an op-amp used as a comparator. The comparator interfaces with the microcontroller, which in turn controls a relay to operate the water pump. An LCD display interfaced with the microcontroller shows the moisture content and the water pump status.


  • Efficiency: The automatic irrigation system project ensures that the fields get the right amount of water.
  • Water Conservation: This soil moisture sensor irrigation system only activates when necessary, minimizing water waste.
  • Ease of Use: The auto irrigation system is simple to set up and requires minimal maintenance.


The automatic irrigation system using soil moisture sensor is an effective way to streamline the irrigation process and conserve water. By integrating this irrigation system project into your agricultural practices, you can ensure optimal soil moisture levels and maximize crop yield.

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