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IOT – Based Underground Cable Fault Detection


Underground cables are the lifelines of our modern electrical infrastructure, but they are not immune to faults. Traditional methods of fault detection often involve time-consuming and costly processes that require digging up large sections of ground. However, IoT-based underground cable fault detection is changing the game. This technology not only pinpoints the exact location of the fault but also allows for remote monitoring, saving both time and resources.

How Does It Work?

The core of this system is a potential divider network laid across the underground cable. When a fault occurs, such as a tear fault or a short circuit, a specific voltage is generated based on the resistors’ network combination. This voltage is then sensed by a microcontroller, such as an Atmega Microcontroller, and processed to determine the fault’s location.

Hardware Components

  • Atmega Microcontroller: The brain of the operation.
  • Wifi Module: Enables IoT capabilities.
  • LCD Display: For on-site fault information.
  • Relay, Crystal Oscillator, Resistors, Capacitors, Transistors: Various components for circuit completion.
  • Cables and Connectors, Diodes, PCB and Breadboards, LED, Transformer/Adapter, Push Buttons, Switch, IC, IC Sockets: Additional hardware for functionality and interfacing.

Software Specifications

  • Arduino Compiler: For programming the Atmega Microcontroller.
  • MC Programming Language: C: The language used for coding the microcontroller.

IoT Integration

The system uses IoT technology to transmit the fault data over the internet. This allows for real-time monitoring and quick action. The data is usually displayed on a dashboard developed using platforms like IOTGecko, making it accessible from anywhere.


  • Efficiency: Only the faulty section needs to be repaired, saving time and effort.
  • Cost-Effective: Reduces the cost of labor and materials.
  • Remote Monitoring: Allows authorities to monitor the health of underground cables in real-time.


IoT-based underground cable fault detection is a revolutionary technology that promises to make our electrical infrastructures more reliable and efficient. By pinpointing the exact location of underground cable faults and enabling remote monitoring, this technology significantly reduces the time and cost associated with traditional fault detection methods.

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