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Multi Robot Coordination For Swarm Robotics


Swarm robotics is a burgeoning field that leverages collective intelligence to perform tasks more efficiently. One of the most intriguing aspects of swarm robotics is the master-slave relationship, which allows for coordinated movements and actions. This article delves into a pair of arduino-based swarm bots that exemplify this relationship, focusing on their hardware and software specifications, and how they communicate to achieve a common goal.

The Master Robot

The master robot serves as the command center of the operation. It is equipped with Infrared (IR) sensors controlled by a PIC microcontroller. The primary task of the master robot is line-following, achieved through the reflected light principle. The IR sensors detect the line and guide the robot along its path.

The Slave Robot

The slave robot mimics the master but doesn’t have decision-making capabilities. It receives commands from the master robot via an RF (Radio Frequency) module. The slave robot is also built on a similar robotic chassis and uses a PIC microcontroller for its operations.

Hardware Specifications

  • PIC Microcontroller: The brain of both the master and slave robots.
  • Robotic Chassis: Provides the structural base for the robots.
  • DC Motor: Powers the movement.
  • RF Module: Facilitates wireless communication.
  • IR Sensors: Used for line-following by the master robot.
  • LCD Display: For real-time status updates.
  • Other Components: Include resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes, and more.

Software Specifications

  • MPLAB: The integrated development environment used for programming.
  • MC Programming Language: C language is used for coding the microcontroller.

Communication Protocol

The master robot sends movement commands to the slave using RF communication. This ensures that the slave robot mimics the master’s movements, thereby achieving the objective of master-slave coordination in swarm robotics.


  • Efficient task execution
  • Simplified control through a master robot
  • Scalability


Master-slave coordination in arduino-based swarm robotics offers a compelling way to perform tasks efficiently. By using advanced hardware and software, these robots can communicate seamlessly to achieve their objectives.

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