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Political Science Project On India’s Foreign Policy Class 12 CBSE


A government’s strategy and actions in dealing with other nations and international organisations are referred to as its foreign policy. It includes a variety of diplomatic, economic, military, and cultural instruments that a nation use to further and defend its interests and ideals at home and abroad. Numerous elements, including a nation’s history, geography, political system, economic state, and security issues, can influence its foreign policy. The objectives of foreign policy may include promoting economic growth, human rights advancement, democracy advancement, the strengthening of international institutions, and the promotion of peaceful relations with other countries. In the case of India, its history, culture, and geopolitical position as a significant regional power with global aspirations all influence its foreign policy.


The following categories can be used to broadly group India’s foreign policy goals:

Promoting National Security: India’s foreign policy aims to protect its sovereignty, political independence, and territorial integrity. Alliances, strategic relationships, military cooperation, and the development of powerful defence capabilities are used to attain this goal.

Fostering Economic Growth: By promoting foreign investment, improving trade ties, and fostering economic cooperation with other nations, India’s foreign policy aims to foster economic growth and development. Initiatives like Make in India, Digital India, and the Startup India programme help to attain this goal.

Protecting Indian Nationals Abroad: India’s foreign policy also involves steps to safeguard the welfare and interests of its citizens who are residing or travelling abroad. This covers consular aid, evacuation strategies, and legal support for Indian nationals who need it.

Promoting Regional and Global Peace: India’s foreign policy aims to foster peace and stability both in its immediate neighbourhood and throughout the world. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), and India’s membership in other international organisations all contribute to the achievement of this goal.

Protecting the Environment and Addressing Global Challenges: India’s foreign policy focuses on addressing global issues including cybersecurity, terrorism, and climate change. It also places a strong emphasis on protecting the environment. Partnerships with other countries and international organisations, as well as the promotion of green energy and sustainable development initiatives, are used to attain this goal.


The following succinctly expresses India’s fundamental foreign policy tenets:

Non-Alignment: India bases its foreign policy on the idea of non-alignment, which states that the country does not associate with any specific group of countries or alliance. India is able to do this without interference from the interests of any other nation or set of nations, maintaining its independence and pursuing its own national interests.

Panchsheel: A set of five guidelines for peaceful coexistence, Panchsheel serves as the foundation for India’s foreign policy. These values include non-aggression, non-interference in one another’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful cohabitation. These values also include respect for one another’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.

Strategic Autonomy: India’s foreign policy is governed by the idea of strategic autonomy, which states that the country is free to decide for itself on issues of national interest without being swayed by alliances or outside pressures.

Multilateralism: India’s foreign policy places a strong emphasis on the value of multilateralism, which refers to cooperation with other nations and international organisations in order to accomplish shared objectives and handle global concerns. India actively participates in venues including the United Nations, the G20, the BRICS, as well as other local and global organisations.

Soft Power: India’s foreign policy also emphasises the use of “soft power,” which refers to the use of non-military methods such as culture, education, and others to shape the attitudes and behaviour of other nations. This includes activities like promoting Indian customs and culture, awarding scholarships to international students, and taking part in global cultural gatherings.


Over time, changes in India’s foreign policy have affected its relationships with other countries. In India’s relations with foreign nations, some notable changes include:

United States of America: In recent years, India and the US have significantly changed in terms of their relationship. An important turning point in India-US ties occurred with the signing of the civil nuclear agreement in 2008. Since then, the two nations have strengthened their strategic alliance, putting an emphasis on defence collaboration, counterterrorism efforts, and business relations.

China: A mix of collaboration and competitiveness has characterised India’s relations with China. Despite the expansion of economic links between the two nations, disagreements about trade, the border, and other matters have persisted. Tensions between India and China have increased recently, especially since the 2020 border incident in the Ladakh region.

India and Russia: Since the end of the Cold War, India and Russia have had good relations. The two nations have a strategic partnership that is centred on defence and energy collaboration. However, India has aimed to broaden the diversity of its arms suppliers in recent years and has strengthened its defence connections with the US, Israel, and France.

India and Japan: With a focus on economic collaboration, infrastructure development, and defence connections, India and Japan’s relations have improved recently. In addition, the two nations have collaborated closely on regional security problems including the South China Sea conflict.

Middle East: Based on shared cultural and economic values, India has had a long-standing relationship with nations in this region. In recent years, India’s relations with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Israel have improved, with an emphasis on energy cooperation and defence connections. The US sanctions and worries over regional security have strained India’s relations with Iran.

India’s developing strategic aims and the shifting geopolitical landscape in the region and beyond are largely reflected in the country’s changing relations with other countries.


A combination of historical, cultural, economic, and security issues have influenced India’s relations with its neighbours. The following are some crucial elements of India’s relations with its neighbours:

Pakistan: Due to a protracted territorial dispute over the Kashmir area, cross-border terrorism, and other security concerns, relations between India and Pakistan have been tense. The two nations have fought numerous conflicts and their relations are still strained despite sporadic talks and efforts to mend fences.

China: India and China share a long, contentious border, which has been a major source of hostility between the two nations. Despite the expansion of economic links between the two nations, disagreements about trade, the border, and other matters have persisted. Tensions between India and China have increased recently, especially since the 2020 border incident in the Ladakh region.

Nepal: India and Nepal have long had close ties based on shared cultural, economic, and interpersonal values. The Nepalese government has accused India of meddling in its domestic issues, which has caused a deterioration in relations between the two countries in recent years.

Bangladesh: With a focus on economic collaboration, infrastructure development, and security connections, India and Bangladesh’s relations have greatly improved in recent years. Additionally, the two nations have collaborated closely on problems including water sharing, border management, and counterterrorism.

Sri Lanka: Cultural, economic, and interpersonal ties have long united India and Sri Lanka. The ethnic violence in Sri Lanka, Tamil secession, and China’s expanding influence in the region have all impacted India’s relations with Sri Lanka.

Overall, the complex mix of cooperation and competition in India’s relations with its neighbours is influenced by historical, cultural, economic, and security concerns. Promoting regional stability, economic expansion, and security cooperation are among India’s strategic aims in the area, along with maintaining a balance in its interactions with different nations.


An essential factor in India’s foreign policy and strategic planning is its nuclear programme. The following are some crucial details about India’s nuclear programme:

History: The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was founded in Mumbai in the 1940s, marking the beginning of India’s nuclear programme. The programme gained momentum in the 1960s, and the first nuclear test, code-named “Smiling Buddha,” took place in 1974.

Civilian and Military Program: India’s nuclear programmes are divided into two categories: military and civilian. The country’s military programme aims to build nuclear weaponry capabilities. The Department of Atomic Energy is in charge of the civilian programme, while the Strategic Forces Command is in charge of the military programme.

Nuclear doctrine: According to India’s “no first use” policy, nuclear weapons will only be used against nuclear attackers. The emphasis on a credible minimum deterrence posture in India’s nuclear doctrine aims to keep a formidable nuclear deterrent capability to deter potential adversaries.

International Accords: Prior to signing the India-US Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2008, India had not ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Additionally, India has ratified the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

Relationships with Other Nuclear Powers: The United States, Russia, France, and Australia are among the nations with whom India has nuclear cooperation agreements. Both Pakistan and China are nuclear-armed countries, and their relations with India have historically been tense and occasionally violent.

The overall goal of India’s nuclear programme is to strike a balance between its duties to the international community and its relations with other nuclear powers while pursuing a credible minimum deterrent capacity.

Indian nuclear product “updates”

In recent years, India’s nuclear programme has undergone a number of revisions and advancements. Among the noteworthy updates are:

Civil nuclear cooperation: In 2008, India and the United States inked a historic civil nuclear deal that opened the door for India to develop a larger civilian nuclear energy programme. Similar agreements have since been made by India with a number of other nations, including France and Russia.

Nuclear Capabilities: With the creation of new weapon systems, delivery platforms, and command and control systems, India has continued to modernise and enlarge its nuclear capabilities. India tested its over 3,000 km-range K-4 submarine-launched ballistic missile in 2019.

Nuclear Energy: With intentions to enhance the share of nuclear energy in the overall energy mix, India has been increasing its nuclear energy capacity. There are currently 22 nuclear reactors operating in India, and more are expected to be added in the upcoming years.

Cooperation on a global scale: India has been actively participating in efforts to advance nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation. In particular, India has been looking to increase its research and development-related nuclear cooperation with other nations.

International acceptability: As evidenced by India’s admission to a number of international conferences and organisations focused on nuclear energy and non-proliferation, India’s nuclear programme has been earning acknowledgment and acceptability on a global scale. India joined the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), a crucial anti-proliferation organisation, as a full member in 2016.

India’s nuclear programme has undergone a number of modifications and developments, which reflect its strategic priorities, aspirations for a credible nuclear deterrent capacity, and dedication to international cooperation and non-proliferation.


A variety of factors, such as India’s strategic objectives, regional and global security considerations, economic priorities, and cultural and historical linkages, influence its foreign policy. India’s foreign policy has changed over time in response to shifting internal and global environments as well as new possibilities and challenges.

Maintaining regional and global stability, fostering economic growth and development, and preserving national security and sovereignty are all goals of India’s foreign policy. These goals have been pursued by India through a variety of diplomatic, economic, and military actions, including as active participation in multilateral fora, the growth of trade and investment connections, and the creation of a credible nuclear deterrent capacity.

A number of fundamental concepts, including as non-alignment, peaceful cohabitation, and respect for international law and standards, serve as the foundation for India’s foreign policy. While attempting to preserve cordial ties with its neighbours, such as Pakistan, China, and Bangladesh, India has also worked to deepen its connections with other world powers, like the United States, Russia, and Japan.

A key component of India’s foreign policy and strategic planning is its nuclear programme, which aims to retain a credible minimum deterrent capability while juggling its duties to other nations and its relations with other nuclear powers. India’s nuclear programme has undergone various updates and advances, including the growth of its civilian nuclear energy programme, the modernisation of its nuclear capabilities, and active engagement in global initiatives to support nuclear security, non-proliferation, and safety.

India’s foreign policy is intricate and broad overall, reflecting the diverse interests, aspirations, and difficulties of the nation. In the years to come, shifting internal and global environments, as well as new possibilities and challenges, will continue to influence India’s foreign policy ambitions.


This is to certify that I, [Your Name], a student of Class 12 at [Your School Name], have successfully completed my Political Science Project on “India’s Foreign Policy” as part of the CBSE curriculum.

During the course of this project, I delved into the intricacies of India’s foreign policy, exploring its goals, fundamental tenets, changing international relations, and the significance of its nuclear programme. It was a fascinating journey, and I am delighted to present the findings of my research.

Through this project, I learned about the multifaceted nature of India’s foreign policy and how it is influenced by a myriad of factors, such as historical ties, cultural connections, economic priorities, and regional security concerns. Understanding the importance of promoting national security, fostering economic growth, and maintaining peaceful relations with other countries has given me a deeper appreciation for the complexities involved in managing foreign relations.

One of the most captivating aspects of my research was studying the fundamental tenets of India’s foreign policy, including non-alignment, Panchsheel, strategic autonomy, multilateralism, and the use of soft power. These guiding principles not only shape India’s approach to international relations but also reflect its commitment to peaceful coexistence and respect for global norms.

Analyzing India’s changing international relations, particularly with the United States, China, Russia, Japan, and its neighbors, provided valuable insights into the dynamics of geopolitics and how evolving scenarios impact diplomatic ties between nations.

The exploration of India’s nuclear programme was particularly intriguing. Understanding the historical context, its “no first use” policy, and its emphasis on a credible minimum deterrent highlighted the delicate balance between national security and global responsibilities.

I express my heartfelt gratitude to my teachers for guiding me throughout this project, providing valuable feedback, and encouraging me to explore various aspects of India’s foreign policy.

With great pride and satisfaction, I accept this Certificate of Completion for my Political Science Project on “India’s Foreign Policy. ” I hope that my work will contribute to a better understanding of India’s role in the global arena and its efforts to pursue peaceful, cooperative, and strategic relations with the international community.

[Your Name]Class 12, [Your School Name]Date: [Date of Completion]
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