Introduction to the Cold War
The Cold War wasn’t your typical war. It wasn’t about boots on the ground or bombs falling from the sky. Instead, it was a simmering, decades-long standoff between two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, and their allies. This silent battle of ideologies, politics, and military might stretched from the end of World War II in 1945 to the early 1990s. It was like a high-stakes chess match played on a global scale, where the pieces were countries and the stakes were nothing less than world domination.
Origins of the Cold War
The seeds of the Cold War were planted during the chaotic final days of World War II. The United States, Soviet Union, and other Allied powers had joined forces to defeat the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. It was a marriage of convenience, driven by the common goal of defeating a common enemy. But beneath the surface, cracks were forming.
- World War II and Allied Cooperation: During the war, these once-unlikely allies fought side by side, but it was out of necessity rather than friendship. The Axis powers were a grave threat, forcing the Allies to band together.
- Ideological Differences: Beneath the surface, the United States and the Soviet Union had starkly different worldviews. The U.S. was all about capitalism, democracy, and individual freedoms, while the Soviet Union championed communism and a tightly controlled economy. It was a clash of titans.
- Disagreements over Eastern Europe: One powder keg was the fate of Eastern Europe. The Soviets had rolled into Eastern European countries during the war and set up communist governments. This made the Western Allies, especially the U.S. and the U.K., uneasy about Soviet influence.
- Yalta and Potsdam Conferences: The Yalta Conference in February 1945 and the Potsdam Conference in July 1945 were like the turning points in a suspenseful movie. They discussed the division of Germany and the United Nations, but the devil was in the details. These conferences hinted at the growing mistrust between the Western Allies and the Soviets.
- The Atomic Bomb: The United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. That was a game-changer. It gave the U.S. a powerful edge. The Soviets, aware of the atomic bomb’s destructive power, felt a growing need for a security buffer in Eastern Europe.
- The Iron Curtain Speech: Enter Winston Churchill. In March 1946, he delivered the iconic “Iron Curtain” speech, warning the world about the growing divide between the democratic West and the communist East in Europe. It was a clear sign that the honeymoon was over.
- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan: In 1947, President Harry Truman unveiled the Truman Doctrine, essentially saying the U.S. would back any country resisting communism. That was followed by the Marshall Plan, a massive aid program to rebuild Western Europe. Both were like chess moves in the grand game of containment.
- Berlin Blockade and Airlift: The Berlin Blockade of 1948-1949 cranked up the tension. The Soviet Union blocked Western access to West Berlin, and the United States responded with the Berlin Airlift, a heroic effort to keep the city supplied by air. It was a real-life drama.
Key Players in the Cold War
The Cold War stage wasn’t just set for the United States and the Soviet Union. It was like a global ensemble cast, with numerous other countries and leaders playing their parts. Here are some of the star players:
- United States: The big players here included President Harry S. Truman, who set the stage with the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. Then came Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, and Reagan, each bringing their own style to the Cold War theater.
- Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin was the early protagonist, taking a hardline approach. Khrushchev followed, easing tensions a bit but still causing sparks. Brezhnev came next, asserting the Brezhnev Doctrine. And then came Gorbachev, whose reforms ultimately brought down the curtain on the Soviet Union.
- Western Allies: Winston Churchill, Charles de Gaulle, and Konrad Adenauer had their own roles. Churchill coined the term “Iron Curtain,” de Gaulle pursued an independent path, and Adenauer rebuilt West Germany, reshaping the script.
- Eastern Bloc Leaders: Tito, Castro, Ulbricht—these were the supporting actors in the Eastern Bloc, each with their own part to play in this geopolitical drama.
- Non-Aligned Movement: Leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Gamal Abdel Nasser were like the wise observers, advocating for a non-aligned stance amid the Cold War chaos.
The Truman Doctrine and Containment
Now, let’s talk strategy. The Truman Doctrine and containment were like the director’s cues, guiding U.S. actions during the early Cold War years.
- The Truman Doctrine (1947): Picture this—Greece and Turkey were in a tight spot in 1947, facing communist insurgencies. The British, who had been helping out, said they couldn’t anymore. Cue President Truman’s speech to Congress. He asked for money and military aid for Greece and Turkey, framing it as a battle between good and evil, democracy and totalitarianism.
- The Policy of Containment: Imagine this as the overarching plotline. It was George F. Kennan who wrote the script. His “Long Telegram” and the “X Article” in 1946 and 1947 laid it out: instead of trying to roll back communism, contain it. Use a mix of politics, economics, and military muscle to resist and counter it. This was the blueprint for the show.
- Impact: The Truman Doctrine and containment were like the recurring themes of the series. They shaped U.S. foreign policy for decades, leading to conflicts in Korea and Vietnam, as well as the broader Cold War showdown with the Soviet Union. It was a guiding star until the Soviet Union’s grand exit.
The Arms Race During the Cold War
Now, let’s talk hardware. The Arms Race was like the flashy special effects in this Cold War blockbuster.
- Origins: Picture the tension in the air after World War II. The U.S. and the Soviet Union had nuclear weapons, and they weren’t shy about using them. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were like the opening salvo in this explosive contest.
- Nuclear Proliferation: It was like a race to see who could build the biggest, baddest bombs. The Soviet Union’s successful nuclear test in 1949 lit the fuse, and the two superpowers went all-in.
- Strategic Doctrines: Imagine the script: the U.S. went for “Massive Retaliation,” while the Soviet Union talked about “peaceful coexistence” but built up its nuclear arsenal anyway.
- Development of Delivery Systems: Both sides invested big bucks in missiles and bombers. ICBMs were the hot new thing, delivering nuclear payloads faster than a pizza on a Saturday night.
- Testing and Detonations: Picture the mushroom clouds and the underground booms. Nuclear tests were like the big set pieces in this thriller. Hydrogen bombs were the showstoppers.
- Arms Control Efforts: Amid the chaos, there were attempts at negotiation. Treaties like the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) tried to keep things from getting out of hand.
- Costs and Consequences: The Arms Race was like a money pit. Both superpowers poured resources into their arsenals instead of schools and hospitals. The doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) kept everyone up at night.
- End of the Arms Race: Picture a slowdown in the action. Economic pressures and arms control agreements, like the INF Treaty, brought the curtain down on this explosive showdown. The end of the Cold War was like rolling the credits.
The Space Race During the Cold War
- Origins: Think back to the post-World War II era. The United States and the Soviet Union were like two rival magicians trying to outdo each other with their tricks. Space was their stage.
- Sputnik and Early Soviet Achievements: Imagine the gasps in the audience when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, in 1957. It was the opening act that set the tone.
- U.S. Response: The United States created NASA, like a new player entering the scene. Mercury, Gemini—they were like the training montages in the movie, preparing astronauts for the big show.
- Apollo Program and Moon Landing: The Apollo program was the grand performance. Apollo 11’s moon landing, with Neil Armstrong’s historic step, was like the climax of the movie—a moment of American triumph.
- Cold War Symbolism: The Space Race wasn’t just about science; it was a symbol of ideological superiority. Each launch was a statement of technological prowess and superpower status.
- Key Milestones: Picture the achievements stacking up—spacewalks, lunar rovers, and space stations. The Soviet Union sent the first woman into space, Valentina Tereshkova, adding a twist to the plot.
- Collaboration and International Relations: Despite the rivalry, there were moments of cooperation, like the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The Space Race had implications for international relations, including space-related arms control.
- End of the Space Race: As the Cold War thawed, so did the Space Race. The United States shifted focus, and former rivals started working together in space exploration programs. It was like a curtain call for this grand performance.
The Cold War’s Global Impact
In the epic struggle known as the Cold War, numerous regions worldwide became the battlegrounds where ideological, political, and military rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated into conflicts, proxy wars, and global tensions. These volatile areas were marked by fierce superpower competition and the potential to ignite a worldwide confrontation. Here, we delve into some of the notable hotspots of the Cold War
- Berlin emerged as a nerve center of Cold War tensions. In 1948, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on West Berlin, prompting the United States and its allies to initiate the Berlin Airlift.
- The iconic Berlin Wall’s construction in 1961, dividing East and West Berlin, symbolized the stark division between the Eastern and Western blocs.
- The Korean War (1950-1953) was a pivotal hotspot. It ignited when North Korean forces, backed by the Soviet Union and China, invaded South Korea.
- The United Nations, led by the United States, intervened to support South Korea. The war ended with an armistice, leaving Korea divided along the 38th parallel.
- The Vietnam War (1955-1975) unfolded as a prolonged conflict in Southeast Asia. The United States supported South Vietnam, while the Soviet Union and China backed North Vietnam.
- This war had profound consequences for both superpowers and culminated in the reunification of Vietnam under communist rule.
- The Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. The Soviet Union deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba, leading to a tense standoff with the United States.
- It concluded with a diplomatic solution, involving the removal of the missiles from Cuba in exchange for a U.S. pledge not to invade the island.
- The Middle East, owing to its oil resources and strategic significance, was a region of immense Cold War interest. The United States supported pro-Western governments, while the Soviet Union backed Arab nationalist movements.
- The Suez Crisis (1956), Six-Day War (1967), and Yom Kippur War (1973) played key roles in the Cold War rivalry in the region.
Central America and the Caribbean
- In Central America and the Caribbean, the United States and the Soviet Union found themselves on opposing sides of conflicts. Notable examples include the Nicaraguan Revolution and the Salvadoran Civil War.
- The Cuban Revolution (1959) resulted in Cuba becoming a communist ally of the Soviet Union in the Western Hemisphere.
- The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 heightened Cold War tensions. The United States provided support to Afghan rebels, known as Mujahideen, in their fight against Soviet forces.
- This conflict had ramifications for the broader Cold War and contributed to the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.
- Various African nations became arenas for Cold War proxy conflicts, with superpowers backing different factions in civil wars and struggles for independence.
- The Pathet Lao insurgency in Laos and the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia exemplified Cold War conflicts in Southeast Asia, with superpowers indirectly entangled.
Proxy Wars During the Cold War
Proxy wars were a hallmark of the Cold War era, where superpowers, mainly the United States and the Soviet Union, indirectly supported opposing sides rather than engaging in direct military confrontations. These proxy wars allowed superpowers to advance their interests and ideologies while averting the risk of direct conflict. Here are some noteworthy proxy wars
Korean War (1950-1953)
- The Korean War was a significant proxy clash. North Korea, backed by the Soviet Union and China, invaded South Korea, which garnered support from the United States and its allies.
- The war concluded with an armistice in 1953, leaving Korea divided along the 38th parallel.
Vietnam War (1955-1975)
- The Vietnam War was one of the most protracted and contentious proxy wars. North Vietnam, supported by the Soviet Union and China, fought against South Vietnam, backed by the United States.
- The war concluded with the reunification of Vietnam under communist control.
- The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 triggered a proxy war. The United States, alongside Pakistan and other allies, supported Afghan rebels, known as Mujahideen, against Soviet forces.
- This conflict had significant implications for the Soviet Union, contributing to its eventual collapse.
Nicaraguan Civil War (1978-1990)
- Nicaragua became a battleground for Cold War rivalry. The Sandinistas, a leftist group, seized power in Nicaragua, sparking a civil war. The United States supported Contra rebels fighting against the Sandinistas.
- The war ended through negotiations in the early 1990s.
Angolan Civil War (1975-2002)
- Angola experienced a civil war following its independence from Portugal. Cold War dynamics fueled this conflict, with the Soviet Union supporting the leftist MPLA government and the United States and South Africa backing opposing factions.
- The war concluded with the MPLA in power.
Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
- The Iran-Iraq War featured intricate Cold War dynamics. Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, received support from Western countries, including the United States. Iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini, faced isolation and indirect support from the Soviet Union.
- The war ended in a stalemate.
Central American Conflicts (1980s)
- Conflicts in Central America, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, witnessed U.S. support for governments combating leftist rebels. These conflicts bore Cold War implications and humanitarian consequences.
- The Cold War played a role in Southern African conflicts, including the Angolan Civil War and the Rhodesian Bush War, where the United States and the Soviet Union supported opposing sides.
Espionage and the Cold War
Espionage, often referred to as the “spy game,” formed a vital facet of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Both superpowers engaged in extensive espionage endeavors to gather intelligence, gain advantages, and surveil each other’s activities. Here’s an overview of Cold War espionage in the distinctive
- The United States boasted the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), while the Soviet Union operated the KGB (Committee for State Security). These agencies handled espionage, counter-espionage, and covert operations.
Goals of Espionage
- Cold War espionage pursued several objectives:
- Gathering military and strategic intelligence, including insights into the adversary’s nuclear capabilities and military plans.
- Accumulating political intelligence to discern the intentions and actions of the opposing government.
- Executing counter-espionage to safeguard one’s own secrets and thwart spy infiltration.
Methods of Espionage
- Espionage tactics encompassed:
- Human Intelligence (HUMINT): Recruiting spies within the enemy’s government or military to supply classified information.
- Signals Intelligence (SIGINT): Intercepting and decoding electronic communications, such as radio transmissions or encrypted messages.
- Imagery Intelligence (IMINT): Capturing and scrutinizing photographs and satellite imagery.
- Covert Operations: Carrying out clandestine missions, including sabotage and espionage activities, to disrupt the enemy’s plans.
- Certain individuals gained renown (or notoriety) for their roles in Cold War espionage:
- Kim Philby: A British intelligence officer who spied for the Soviet Union, infiltrating both British and American intelligence circles.
- Aldrich Ames: A CIA officer who operated as a double agent for the Soviet Union and later Russia, compromising numerous CIA operations.
- Oleg Gordievsky: A high-ranking KGB officer who served as a double agent for British intelligence, providing invaluable information to the West.
Cuban Missile Crisis and Espionage
- The Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 was profoundly influenced by espionage. U.S. intelligence agencies detected the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba through aerial reconnaissance photos, triggering a tense standoff.
Berlin as a Hub
- Berlin, a divided city during the Cold War, emerged as a major hub for espionage activities. Both the CIA and KGB operated extensively in the city, using it as a base for intelligence collection and espionage.
- Periodically, spy exchanges transpired between the United States and the Soviet Union, exemplified by the 1962 exchange of U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
- Cold War espionage left behind a legacy of mistrust and suspicion between the superpowers. The ceaseless efforts to penetrate each other’s secrets and gain an edge contributed to the era’s overall tension.
The Berlin Wall: A Cold War Icon
The Berlin Wall stood as both a physical and ideological barrier, cleaving the city of Berlin, Germany, during the Cold War. It evolved into one of the most iconic symbols of the East-West schism and the broader conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. Here, we offer a comprehensive glimpse of the Berlin Wall:
- The Berlin Wall materialized on August 13, 1961, erected by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Comprising concrete walls, barbed wire, watchtowers, and guard dog facilities, it served as a formidable division.
Division of Berlin
- After World War II, Berlin was partitioned into four occupation zones, controlled respectively by the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union. This division extended to the entirety of Germany.
- Remarkably, Berlin, positioned entirely within East Germany, was itself bifurcated into East and West Berlin by the Wall.
- The Wall’s construction separated families, friends, and loved ones residing on opposing sides. Many East Berliners found themselves severed from their employment and property in West Berlin.
- Escape attempts from East to West Berlin often resulted in grim consequences, including border guard shootings. Hundreds perished in their pursuit of crossing the Wall.
Symbol of the Cold War
- The Berlin Wall transformed into a potent emblem of the East-West chasm during the Cold War, with the Western world regarding it as a representation of communism’s oppressive nature.
- In 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin and delivered his famous “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech, a testament of solidarity with the people of West Berlin.
- Checkpoint Charlie, a renowned border crossing between East and West Berlin, became a focal point of Cold War tensions and standoffs, often involving U.S. and Soviet tanks.
- The standoff at Checkpoint Charlie in 1961 stands as one of the most perilous moments of the Cold War.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
- The Berlin Wall endured for 28 years until November 9, 1989, when the East German government, besieged by internal and external pressures, declared that East Germans could travel to West Germany.
- Masses of East Berliners surged toward the Wall, and overwhelmed border guards eventually permitted their passage. Exultant celebrations and the disassembly of the Wall ensued.
Reunification of Germany
- The fall of the Berlin Wall signified a momentous juncture in history. It led to the reunification of Germany on October 3, 1990, thereby terminating the division since the conclusion of World War II.
- The Berlin Wall serves as a compelling reminder of the human toll exacted by the Cold War and the eventual triumph of democracy and liberty over totalitarianism.
- Fragments of the Wall endure as a memorial, while the site functions as a museum, educating visitors about its historical import and significance.
The End of the Cold War: A Paradigm Shift
The Cold War, a protracted ideological and geopolitical conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, drew to a close in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Its conclusion ushered in a profound transformation in the global order. Here, we delve into the key events and factors precipitating the end of the Cold War in the unique
Economic Pressures on the Soviet Union
- By the 1980s, the Soviet economy teetered on the brink, owing to inefficiencies, an unwieldy military-industrial complex, and a dearth of economic reforms
- The plummeting oil prices of the 1980s, a linchpin of the Soviet export portfolio, further eroded the Soviet economy.
- In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev assumed the mantle of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. His advent marked the commencement of “perestroika” (economic restructuring) and “glasnost” (openness).
- Gorbachev’s leadership style veered toward openness and reform, diverging from the Soviet leadership tradition.
Reforms and Political Change
- Gorbachev’s reform initiatives aimed at modernizing the Soviet economy and fostering political transparency. However, they exposed long-subdued issues and discontent within the Soviet bloc.
- The relaxation of political strictures kindled demands for greater autonomy and political transformation across various Soviet republics and satellite states.
- The late 1980s bore witness to a sequence of pro-democracy movements coursing through Eastern European nations. These movements aspired to distance themselves from Soviet sway and communist governance.
- Pivotal milestones in Eastern Europe encompassed the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia.
The Revolutions of 1989
- The revolutions in Eastern Europe culminated in the collapse of communist regimes. Hungary, Poland, East Germany, and other nations navigated the transition to democracy.
- Frequently, these transitions unfolded with minimal violence, exemplifying the quest for liberty and self-determination.
The Malta Summit (1989)
- December 1989 witnessed a pivotal summit on the island of Malta between U.S. President George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. The summit symbolized the mutual inclination to alleviate tensions and conclude the Cold War.
End of the Warsaw Pact
- The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, a military coalition helmed by the Soviet Union and comprised of Eastern European nations, unfurled in 1989. By 1991, it had dissipated.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991)
- On December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev relinquished his post as President of the Soviet Union, marking the de facto termination of the Soviet state.
- The Soviet Union splintered into 15 autonomous states, with Russia emerging as the successor entity.
Role of U.S. Policy
- Over the course of the Cold War, the United States executed a policy of “containment” while simultaneously pursuing opportunities for negotiation and nuclear arms reduction.
- The termination of the Cold War materialized through arms reduction accords, including the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), which scaled down the nuclear arsenal.
– The end of the Cold War reverberated globally, fostering the expansion of democracy, the dissemination of capitalism, and the elevation of the United States as the sole global superpower.
– Former Warsaw Pact nations and Soviet republics gravitated toward nationhood and endeavored to forge closer associations with the Western world.
The Legacy of the Cold War: Echoes and Impacts
The Cold War, a protracted and intricate geopolitical contest spanning nearly half a century, left an enduring imprint on the world in manifold ways. Its legacy persists, influencing international relations, political landscapes, and global dynamics. Here, we explore the salient facets of the Cold War’s legacy:
1. Transition from Bipolarity to Unipolarity:
- The Cold War era characterized a bipolar world order, featuring the United States and the Soviet Union as dual superpowers. The Cold War’s termination gave rise to a unipolar world order, with the United States reigning as the dominant superpower.
- This transformation bore significant implications for global politics, security, and economics.
2. Propagation of Democracy and Capitalism:
- The culmination of the Cold War bore witness to the dissemination of democracy and capitalism as preeminent political and economic systems.
- Former communist nations and Soviet republics embraced democratic governance and market-oriented economies.
3. Ascendancy of NATO and the European Union:
- Subsequent to the Cold War’s conclusion, both NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and the European Union (EU) underwent expansion into Eastern Europe, extending membership to former Warsaw Pact countries and Eastern European states.
- These institutions played a pivotal role in fostering stability, security, and economic integration within Europe.
4. Arms Reduction and Nuclear Proliferation:
- The post-Cold War era witnessed the inception of comprehensive arms reduction agreements between the United States and Russia, including the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START).
- Nevertheless, concerns regarding nuclear proliferation endured, with other nations seeking to acquire nuclear capabilities.
5. Regional Conflicts and Humanitarian Crises:
- Some regional conflicts that lay dormant during the Cold War resurged following its termination, leading to violence and humanitarian catastrophes.
- Ethnical tensions and conflicts in regions such as the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Africa were exacerbated by the Cold War’s legacy.
6. Legacy of Divided Nations:
- The division of Germany and the Korean Peninsula, enduring relics of the Cold War, engendered profound and lasting consequences. The reunification of Germany in 1990 was a seminal moment, but the Korean Peninsula remains partitioned.
- These divisions continue to impact contemporary geopolitics.
7. Rise of Non-State Actors:
- The post-Cold War landscape bore witness to the ascendancy of non-state actors, including terrorist organizations and transnational criminal syndicates, which became influential players in global security and politics.
8. Changing Alliances and Partnerships:
- The conclusion of the Cold War engendered shifts in international alliances and partnerships, as nations sought new alliances based on shared interests rather than ideological schisms.
- The evolving rapport between Russia and the Western world, China’s emergence as a global power, and the emergence of new regional heavyweights exemplify these transformations.
9. Legacy in Popular Culture and Art:
- The Cold War’s indelible mark reverberates in popular culture, literature, cinema, and art. Themes of espionage, the arms race, and the specter of nuclear warfare frequently feature in creative productions.
10. Lessons in Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution:
– Diplomatic initiatives, such as negotiation and diplomacy, played a pivotal role in concluding the Cold War. The peaceful resolution of the conflict stands as a testament to diplomatic achievement.
11. Ongoing Tensions and Residual Effects:
– Some tensions and disputes trace their roots to the Cold War era, notably those involving Russia, and persist in contemporary international relations.
– The legacy of espionage, nuclear arsenals, and military alliances retains relevance in modern geopolitics.
In summary, the Cold War was a pivotal period in history that shaped the world in profound ways. It pitted the United States against the Soviet Union in a multifaceted conflict that extended far beyond traditional warfare. The legacy of the Cold War continues to influence global politics, security dynamics, and international relations to this day.
As we reflect on this era, we are reminded of the importance of diplomacy, cooperation, and the pursuit of peaceful solutions to conflicts. The end of the Cold War demonstrated that even deeply entrenched ideological disputes can be resolved through dialogue and negotiation. It also underscored the need for international alliances and partnerships to address global challenges.
While the Cold War had its share of tensions and conflicts, it also offers lessons in the power of diplomacy and the potential for positive change. As we move forward in an ever-changing world, we must draw from the experiences of the Cold War era to foster a future marked by cooperation, peace, and shared global interests.
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