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Project On Trends In Budgetary Condition In India For Class 12


I wish to extend my heartfelt gratitude to all those who have played a significant role in the successful completion of this project on “Trends in Budgetary Condition in India.” This endeavor would not have been achievable without their unwavering support, invaluable guidance, and constant encouragement.

Foremost, my deepest thanks go to my dedicated mentor, [Teacher’s Name], whose expert guidance has been instrumental in shaping this project. Their expertise, patience, and willingness to address my inquiries have been pivotal in bringing this work to fruition.

I am profoundly indebted to my family, especially my parents, and my extended family for their constant support and encouragement. Their unwavering belief in my abilities has been a continuous source of motivation throughout this project.

I would also like to express my gratitude to my friends for their valuable input and engaging discussions, which have significantly enriched the content and ideas presented in this project.

Additionally, I extend my appreciation to the diligent library staff and the wealth of online resources that provided me with the essential materials and information required to research and compile this project.

Last but certainly not least, I wish to acknowledge the citizens of India and all the individuals and institutions involved in budgetary matters for providing the critical data and information necessary for this study.

I extend my sincere thanks to all for their unwavering support and encouragement, which have played a pivotal role in making this project a reality.

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The effective management of financial resources stands as a cornerstone of stability and growth in any nation’s economy. In the context of India, a nation characterized by diversity and rapid development, the state of its budgetary condition holds profound implications for the well-being of its citizens and the overall progress of the nation. The Indian budget is not a mere compilation of financial figures; rather, it serves as a reflection of the government’s priorities, policies, and its commitment to achieving various socio-economic objectives.

This project delves deep into the intricate dynamics of India’s budgetary condition, with the aim of providing a comprehensive understanding of the trends, challenges, and reforms that have shaped the nation’s fiscal landscape. India has undergone significant transformations over the years, both economically and politically, and these changes have left indelible marks on its budgetary decisions. By analyzing revenue trends, expenditure allocations, fiscal deficits, public debt management, and the influence of external factors, we endeavor to shed light on the evolving budgetary condition.

Our study encompasses the examination of past, present, and future perspectives of India’s budget, unraveling the complexities of fiscal governance, the factors steering budgetary decisions, and the repercussions of these decisions on various sectors and the overall economy. We hope that this project will not only provide valuable insights into India’s budgetary condition but also contribute to a broader understanding of the role of fiscal policies in a developing economy.

Join us on this journey as we explore historical trends, present challenges, and contemplate the path forward for India’s budgetary condition, a pivotal element in shaping the nation’s economic destiny.

Historical Perspective

To achieve a comprehensive grasp of India’s budgetary condition and the trends that have forged it, it is imperative to delve into the historical evolution of budgetary practices within the nation. India’s voyage in budgetary management has been marked by significant milestones, reforms, and shifts in economic priorities. This historical perspective offers invaluable insights into how the nation’s approach to fiscal governance has evolved over time.

Pre-Independence Era:

Before India’s independence in 1947, budgetary practices were governed by British colonial policies. The budgetary process was predominantly centralized, primarily focused on sustaining colonial control and serving British interests. In an economy primarily agrarian, the budget underscored revenue collection from agricultural activities.

Post-Independence Economic Planning:

With independence came the need for comprehensive economic planning and development. India’s first Finance Minister, R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, presented the country’s inaugural budget in 1947. This marked a significant shift towards a budget aimed at addressing the developmental needs of a newly independent nation.

Five-Year Plans:

India’s budgetary landscape further evolved with the introduction of Five-Year Plans in 1951. These plans delineated the nation’s economic priorities, with a focus on sectors such as agriculture, industry, and infrastructure. Budget allocations aligned with these objectives, witnessing the establishment of public sector enterprises to stimulate industrial growth.

Economic Reforms and Liberalization (1990s):

The early 1990s ushered in a pivotal turning point in India’s economic history. The government initiated a series of economic reforms and liberalization measures, opening up the economy to global markets. This era witnessed reduced fiscal deficits, heightened foreign investment, and a shift towards market-driven economic policies.

Goods and Services Tax (GST) Era:

In 2017, India implemented the Goods and Services Tax, a monumental tax reform designed to simplify the tax structure and foster business ease. The GST replaced a complex system of indirect taxes, unifying the Indian market and streamlining tax collection.

Recent Budgetary Trends:

In recent years, India’s budgets have placed a significant emphasis on infrastructure development, healthcare, and digital initiatives. Initiatives like the “Digital India” campaign and the “Make in India” initiative have occupied prominent positions in budgetary priorities.

Understanding these historical shifts in India’s budgetary practices is pivotal in evaluating the country’s contemporary fiscal condition and its preparedness to address the challenges and opportunities of the future. This historical perspective serves as the backdrop for a comprehensive analysis of contemporary budgetary trends and their implications.

Structure of the Indian Budget

The Indian budget represents a comprehensive financial document that meticulously outlines the government’s revenue and expenditure for a fiscal year. It adheres to a structured format, comprising several key components and documents that provide an intricate overview of the nation’s financial plans. Here is a synopsis of the structure of the Indian budget:

Union Budget: The Union Budget, presented by the Union Finance Minister in the Parliament, constitutes the central budget of India. It encompasses the financial affairs of the central government, including revenue and expenditure at the national level.

Railway Budget (Integrated): The Railway Budget, formerly presented separately, was integrated into the Union Budget in 2017. This section focuses on the financial aspects of the Indian Railways, encapsulating revenue, expenditure, and planned investments.

Components of the Indian Budget:

a. Revenue Budget:
– The Revenue Budget encompasses the government’s current income and expenditure. It encompasses revenue receipts and revenue expenditures. Key constituents of the revenue budget include:
– Tax Revenue: Income generated from taxes such as income tax, corporate tax, and GST.
– Non-Tax Revenue: Income from sources beyond taxes, such as dividends, interest, and fees.
– Revenue Expenditure: Government spending on day-to-day operations, salaries, subsidies, and interest payments.

b. Capital Budget:
– The Capital Budget deals with the government’s capital receipts and capital expenditures. It comprises investments in infrastructure, development projects, and asset creation. Key constituents of the capital budget include:
– Capital Receipts: Funds raised by the government through loans, disinvestment, and grants.
– Capital Expenditure: Government spending on long-term development projects, such as constructing roads, bridges, and public infrastructure.

Fiscal Deficit: The fiscal deficit stands as a pivotal indicator of the government’s financial well-being, signifying the discrepancy between total expenditure and total revenue. An elaborate explanation of the fiscal deficit and its implications is typically incorporated within the budget document.

Budgetary Allocation to Various Sectors: The budget delineates allocations to diverse sectors, encompassing health, education, defense, agriculture, and more. It provides insights into the government’s priorities and expenditure plans for each sector.

Economic Survey: The Economic Survey serves as a separate document that precedes the budget presentation. It furnishes an in-depth analysis of the Indian economy, spotlighting vital economic trends, challenges, and policy recommendations.

Finance Bill: The Finance Bill is introduced in Parliament concurrently with the budget. It encompasses proposed changes to tax laws and financial regulations, with its approval rendering it law.

Budget Speech: The Finance Minister delivers a budget speech in Parliament, encapsulating the key highlights of the budget, elucidating policy objectives, and rationalizing budgetary decisions.

Comprehending the structure of the Indian budget is imperative for stakeholders, policymakers, and citizens alike to assess the government’s financial priorities, economic direction, and fiscal responsibility for the impending year.

Budgetary Process in India

The budgetary process in India stands as a meticulous and multifaceted undertaking, entailing numerous stages and stakeholders. It culminates in the presentation of the Union Budget by the Finance Minister within the hallowed halls of Parliament. Here is a panoramic overview of the budgetary process in India:

Budget Preparation:

  • Pre-Budget Consultations: The process kicks off with pre-budget consultations, during which a medley of stakeholders, encompassing industry representatives, economists, and experts, proffer their suggestions and anticipations to the government. These consultations sculpt the budget’s priorities.
  • Receipt of Budget Estimates: Diverse ministries and departments of the central government formulate their budget estimates for the imminent fiscal year. These estimates are constructed on the basis of their specific requirements and priorities.

Formulation of Budget Estimates: The Ministry of Finance occupies a central role in consolidating budget estimates from diverse departments and ministries into a cohesive budget proposal.

Economic Survey: Preceding the budget presentation, the Economic Survey is unveiled. This document presents an exhaustive analysis of the Indian economy, encompassing vital economic trends, challenges, and policy suggestions. It furnishes a backdrop for the budget.

Budget Speech: The Finance Minister delivers the budget speech in Parliament, charting the government’s fiscal policies, revenue and expenditure plans, and priorities for the ensuing fiscal year. The speech stands as a pivotal facet of the budget presentation, proffering insight into the rationale underpinning budgetary decisions.

Presentation of the Budget: The Union Budget, inclusive of both the Revenue Budget and the Capital Budget, is laid before the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), the two Houses of Parliament, on a designated date.

Parliamentary Scrutiny: Subsequent to the budget’s presentation, it undergoes scrupulous scrutiny and debate within Parliament. Both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha meticulously assess the budgetary propositions and may propose modifications or amendments.

Passage of Appropriation Bill: Once the budget secures Parliament’s endorsement, the Appropriation Bill is tabled to authorize government spending. This bill articulates the allocation of funds to distinct ministries and departments.

Passage of Finance Bill: The Finance Bill is unveiled concurrently with the budget and embodies proposed adjustments to tax laws and financial regulations. It necessitates Parliamentary approval to be conferred the status of law.

Implementation of the Budget: With the budget endorsed, the government is empowered to actualize its expenditure plans and revenue measures for the fiscal year. Different ministries and departments commence the execution of their allocated budgets.

Monitoring and Review: Throughout the fiscal year, the government engages in vigilant monitoring of budget execution, assessing whether the allocated resources are judiciously deployed to realize the desired objectives.

Annual Financial Statement: At the culmination of the fiscal year, the Annual Financial Statement is unveiled, encapsulating the actual revenue and expenditure for that year.

The budgetary process in India is a dynamic and participatory procedure, underscoring transparency, accountability, and parliamentary supervision in the stewardship of public finances. It serves as an indispensable instrument in steering the nation’s economic and developmental priorities.

Trends in Government Revenue in India

Government revenue stands as the lifeblood of a nation’s financial health, enabling it to fund essential services, advance infrastructure, and support various socio-economic programs. In India, government revenue amalgamates a blend of taxes, non-tax revenue, grants, and sundry sources. A comprehensive analysis of revenue trends proffers insights into the nation’s economic well-being and the government’s capacity to meet its fiscal obligations. Here are key trends in government revenue in India:

Tax Revenue Trends:

  • Direct Taxes: Throughout the years, direct taxes, encompassing income tax and corporate tax, have stood as substantial contributors to government revenue. Tax reforms, notably the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST), have influenced the composition of tax revenue.
  • Indirect Taxes: The implementation of the GST in 2017 heralded a landmark tax reform, supplanting a labyrinthine system of indirect taxes. This reform aspired to streamline tax collection, mitigate tax evasion, and forge a unified Indian market.

Non-Tax Revenue Trends:

  • Interest and Dividends: Revenue generated from investments, interest, and dividends, originating from public sector enterprises and other sources, augments non-tax revenue.
  • Fees and Charges: Non-tax revenue encompasses fees and charges levied for government services, including administrative fees and user charges.

Grants from Central to State Governments: The allocation of revenue between the central and state governments constitutes a critical facet of fiscal federalism in India. Trends in grants disbursed by the central government to state governments shape their fiscal autonomy and capacity to discharge essential functions.

Disinvestment and Asset Sales: The government periodically resorts to disinvestment and asset sales to mobilize revenue. The divestiture of stakes in public sector enterprises and strategic disinvestment have served as avenues to raise funds.

Impact of Economic Cycles: Economic cycles wield influence over government revenue trends. Periods of economic upswing tend to engender augmented tax revenues, whereas economic downturns can result in revenue shortfalls.

Impact of Policy Reforms: Policy reforms and alterations in tax rates can directly impact government revenue. For instance, tax reductions may stimulate economic activity but lead to diminished immediate tax collections.

External Factors: Global economic conditions, international trade dynamics, and geopolitical factors can likewise sway government revenue, particularly in a globally interlinked economy like India’s.

Focus on Compliance and Digitalization: The government has accentuated the enhancement of tax compliance via digitalization and the harnessing of technology for effective tax collection.

Budgetary Allocations and Fiscal Deficit: Government revenue is closely interwoven with budgetary allocations and fiscal deficit. Revenue trends exert influence over the government’s capacity to fund its planned expenditures and administer fiscal deficits judiciously.

Impact of Pandemic and Economic Shocks: The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic and other economic shocks has profoundly impacted government revenue. The government was compelled to execute relief measures and economic stimulus packages, which affected both revenue collection and expenditure.

A discerning examination of these trends in government revenue serves as an essential touchstone for policymakers, economists, and citizens to gauge the fiscal well-being of the country and engender informed decisions regarding budgetary priorities and economic policies. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and fluctuations in revenue sources facilitates effective fiscal planning and stewardship.

Trends in Government Expenditure in India

Government expenditure stands as a pivotal facet of a nation’s fiscal policy, mirroring its priorities, commitments, and strategies for economic advancement. In India, government expenditure envelops a wide spectrum of sectors and initiatives, encompassing infrastructure development, social welfare, and beyond. Scrutinizing trends in government expenditure bestows insights into the nation’s economic and social progress. Here are salient trends in government expenditure in India:

Expenditure on Social Sectors: Over time, there has been a conspicuous upswing in government expenditure on social sectors, including education, healthcare, and social welfare programs. Investments in these domains are geared toward augmenting human capital and elevating the overall quality of life for citizens.

Infrastructure Development: The government has apportioned substantial resources to the enhancement of infrastructure, spanning roads, railways, ports, and energy projects. These investments are of paramount importance for fomenting economic growth and bolstering connectivity.

Defense Expenditure: India’s defense budget has exhibited sustained growth, mirroring the country’s strategic security requisites. Investments in defense modernization, technology, and infrastructure have consistently ranked as priorities.

Subsidy Reduction and Targeted Delivery: There has been a discernible shift toward curbing untargeted subsidies and instituting targeted subsidy programs, such as the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) system. This approach strives to optimize expenditure while ensuring that benefits reach their intended beneficiaries.

Rural Development: Rural development programs, including schemes for rural infrastructure, employment generation, and poverty alleviation, have attracted significant attention and funding.

Urban Development: The phenomenon of urbanization has engendered amplified investments in urban infrastructure, encompassing smart cities, housing projects, and urban transportation.

Environment and Renewable Energy: The government has evinced a commitment to environmental sustainability by allocating resources to renewable energy projects, afforestation endeavors, and pollution abatement measures.

Digital Initiatives: Budget allocations for digital India initiatives, spanning digital infrastructure, e-governance, and broadband connectivity, have experienced augmentation, in consonance with the escalating prominence of digital technologies.

Impact of Economic Cycles: Government expenditure is susceptible to fluctuations in economic cycles. During periods of economic downturn, counter-cyclical spending may intensify to invigorate growth and buttress vulnerable segments of society.

Public Health Emergencies: The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated extraordinary budgetary provisions for healthcare infrastructure, vaccine distribution, and relief measures. This underscores the adaptability of government expenditure in addressing emergencies.

Focus on Fiscal Consolidation: Recent years have witnessed an accentuated emphasis on fiscal consolidation and the rationalization of government expenditure to secure fiscal prudence.

Allocation to States: Government expenditure encompasses allocations to state governments for their autonomous development programs and responsibilities. The distribution of resources among states constitutes a pivotal facet of India’s federal fiscal structure.

Impact of Reforms: Policy reforms, such as the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and subsidy reforms, have left an imprint on the composition and efficiency of government expenditure.

Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): Collaborations with the private sector through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been utilized to fund and execute a slew of projects, mitigating the financial burden on the government.

An in-depth exploration of trends in government expenditure is quintessential for evaluating the alignment of fiscal policies with national priorities and gauging the government’s efficacy in accomplishing its socio-economic objectives. These trends proffer invaluable insights into the country’s developmental trajectory and fiscal sustainability.

Fiscal Deficit and Debt in India

Fiscal deficit and public debt emerge as pivotal yardsticks of a nation’s fiscal soundness, mirroring its aptitude to administer its finances, fulfill its commitments, and perpetuate economic stability. In India, these metrics are vigilantly monitored to engender fiscal probity and long-term economic viability. Here is an elucidation of fiscal deficit and public debt in India:

Fiscal Deficit:

  • Definition: The fiscal deficit denotes the surplus of total government expenditure over total revenue (excluding borrowings) during a fiscal year. It serves as an indicator of the quantum the government must borrow to fulfill its expenditure obligations.
  • Trends: India has grappled with fiscal deficits historically. However, endeavors to curtail the deficit as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) have been undertaken, though with variegated success. Economic cycles, policy determinations, and external forces can impact fiscal deficit trends.
  • Impact: A lofty fiscal deficit can engender sundry economic challenges, encompassing inflation, augmented interest payments, and a diminished fiscal leeway for vital investments. It can also impinge upon macroeconomic stability.
  • Management: The government employs a repertoire of strategies to oversee fiscal deficits, comprising revenue augmentation via taxes, rationalization of expenditure, and the stimulation of economic growth to elevate revenue.

Public Debt:

  • Definition: Public debt conveys the cumulative amount the government has borrowed over time to offset fiscal deficits and bankroll diverse programs and projects. It encompasses both domestic and external debt.
  • Domestic vs. External Debt: India’s public debt encompasses both domestic debt (borrowings within the country) and external debt (borrowings from foreign sources). The composition of public debt can fluctuate based on government policies and external economic conditions.
  • Trends: India’s public debt has been on an ascending trajectory, influenced by fiscal deficits and the necessity to finance development ventures. It is articulated as a percentage of GDP, and managing this ratio is pivotal for fiscal sustainability.
  • Impact: Elevated levels of public debt can translate into heightened interest payments, crowding out productive government spending, and vulnerability to external shocks. Effective debt management is imperative to attenuate these risks.
  • Debt-to-GDP Ratio: The debt-to-GDP ratio emerges as a paramount metric employed to gauge the sustainability of public debt. India’s government has aspired to keep this ratio within tenable bounds via judicious fiscal policies.

Recent Developments:

  • The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic posed substantive fiscal challenges for India, obligating extensive government outlays on healthcare, relief measures, and economic stimulus. This eventuated in the amplification of both fiscal deficit and public debt.
  • The government unveiled an assortment of reforms and measures to address fiscal concerns, encompassing privatization blueprints

, rationalization of subsidies, and endeavors to augment revenue collection.

Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act:

  • The FRBM Act serves as a legislative framework governing fiscal discipline. It aspires to curtail fiscal deficits, circumscribe public debt, and adhere to a path of sustainable fiscal consolidation.

External Debt Management:

  • Prudent management of external debt is imperative to insulate the economy from vulnerabilities stemming from exchange rate fluctuations and global economic conditions. Policies to ameliorate external debt sustainability are integral.

Fiscal Prudence and Economic Growth:

  • Attaining a balance between fiscal prudence and facilitating economic growth stands as a perpetual challenge. Policies that stimulate growth while ensuring fiscal discipline are a key consideration.

Understanding the intricacies of fiscal deficit and public debt is vital for comprehending a nation’s fiscal posture, economic resilience, and its capacity to marshal resources for development and contingencies. These metrics shape policy decisions and underpin the nation’s fiscal stewardship.

Impact of External Factors on India’s Budget

India’s budgetary condition is intrinsically linked to a mélange of external factors, both economic and geopolitical, which exert influence on the nation’s fiscal policies, revenue streams, and expenditure priorities. A discerning examination of these external factors is indispensable for comprehending India’s fiscal landscape. Here are some of the prominent external factors that impact India’s budget:

Global Economic Conditions: The state of the global economy, encompassing trends in economic growth, trade volumes, and commodity prices, can significantly influence India’s revenue from trade and foreign exchange reserves.

International Oil Prices: India’s energy requirements are colossal, and fluctuations in international oil prices can impinge on its import bill and fiscal health. Elevated oil prices can trigger inflation and place pressure on the government’s subsidy burden.

Foreign Investment and Capital Flows: Foreign direct investment (FDI), portfolio investments, and other capital flows have a direct bearing on India’s balance of payments and foreign exchange reserves. Favorable investment climates can stimulate capital inflows, whereas adverse conditions can precipitate outflows.

Geopolitical Developments: Geopolitical occurrences and tensions in neighboring regions can impact India’s defense expenditure and necessitate resource allocation for security and defense purposes.

Global Trade Policies:Trade policies and tariffs implemented by major trading partners can affect India’s export performance and trade balance. Trade disputes or changes in global trading norms can necessitate budgetary adjustments.

Exchange Rate Fluctuations: Exchange rate movements can affect the cost of imports, export competitiveness, and external debt servicing. The government may need to take measures to manage exchange rate risks.

International Aid and Assistance: India receives foreign aid and assistance from various countries and international organizations for development projects. The quantum and terms of this aid can impact budgetary planning.

Commodity Prices: India’s imports and exports of commodities are sensitive to global commodity price trends. Price fluctuations can affect trade balances, inflation rates, and subsidy burdens.

Global Health Emergencies: Health crises, such as pandemics, can necessitate extraordinary healthcare expenditures and relief measures. The COVID-19 pandemic, for instance, required substantial budgetary allocations.

Climate Change and Natural Disasters: The impact of climate change and natural disasters can necessitate budgetary provisions for disaster relief, mitigation, and adaptation efforts.

International Financial Institutions: Agreements with international financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) can come with conditions that affect fiscal policies and budget priorities.

International Trade Agreements: India’s participation in international trade agreements and negotiations can have implications for customs duties, tariffs, and trade-related revenue.

Global Technological Trends: Advancements in technology and changes in global tech trends can influence India’s digital initiatives and the allocation of resources for technology-driven projects.

The interplay of these external factors necessitates adept fiscal planning and responsiveness on the part of the Indian government. Flexibility, adaptability, and the ability to anticipate and mitigate risks stemming from external developments are paramount in maintaining fiscal stability and achieving economic objectives.

Conclusion and Future Outlook

India’s budgetary condition is an intricate mosaic, reflecting the nation’s economic aspirations, social imperatives, and fiscal challenges. As we navigate the labyrinthine contours of India’s fiscal landscape, we encounter a nation in perpetual motion, striving to harmonize diverse priorities and meet the expectations of its burgeoning populace.

Historically, India has traversed a remarkable trajectory in its budgetary journey, commencing from the austere days of pre-independence fiscal governance to its contemporary role as a major global player in the fiscal arena. It has embraced economic reforms, liberalization, and digitalization, emblematic of a dynamic and evolving fiscal landscape.

Trends in government revenue underscore the pivotal role of tax reforms, direct and indirect taxation, and the transformative impact of initiatives such as the Goods and Services Tax (GST). Simultaneously, non-tax revenue, grants, and external factors weave a complex tapestry influencing the revenue stream.

In the realm of government expenditure, the pronounced accent on social sectors, infrastructure development, and targeted subsidy delivery emerges as a defining feature of India’s fiscal policy. Prudent allocation of resources, subsidy rationalization, and the focus on sustainability define the contours of contemporary government expenditure.

Fiscal deficit and public debt cast a long shadow on India’s fiscal prudence. The government endeavors to strike a balance between its commitment to socio-economic development and the imperative of fiscal consolidation. Legislative frameworks like the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act are invoked to navigate this tightrope.

External factors, both economic and geopolitical, accentuate the interconnectedness of India’s fiscal health with the global stage. From oil prices to foreign investment, trade policies to exchange rates, India’s budget is undeniably enmeshed with global dynamics.

As we peer into the future, India’s budgetary condition faces a mélange of opportunities and challenges. Sustaining economic growth, addressing income inequality, bolstering healthcare infrastructure, harnessing digital technologies, and confronting climate change are paramount imperatives. Fiscal prudence, adaptability, and judicious resource allocation will be pivotal in realizing these aspirations.

The Indian budget, beyond being a fiscal document, is a blueprint for the nation’s progress. It is a declaration of intent, a roadmap for development, and a pledge to its citizens. In its continued evolution, India’s budgetary condition stands as a testament to the nation’s resilience, innovation, and unwavering commitment to a brighter future.


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