Training means changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interaction with their co-workers or supervisors”.
Many authors have defined training as follows :
- Jack Halloran: Training is the process of transmitting and receiving information related to the problem
- Mathis and Jackson: Training is a learning process whereby people learn skills, concept, attitudes, and knowledge to aid in the achievement of
- Gary Dessler: Training is the process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their
- Decenzo & Robbins: programs that are more present-day oriented, focuses on an individual’s current jobs, enhancing specific skills and abilities to immediately perform their job called
- Ricky Griffin: Training usually refers to the teaching operational or technical employees how to do the job for which they were hired
Concept of Training:
Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organizations and to the experiences of people in work. Training has implications for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organizations employing peop le need to train and develop their staff. Most organizations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such investment can take the form of employing specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and development entails obtaining and maintaining space and equipment. It also means that operational personnel, employed in the organization’s main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development and delivery. This means they are required to give less attention to activities that are obviously more productive in terms of the organization’s main business. However, investment in training and development is generally regarded as a good management practice to maintain appropriate expertise now and in the future.
Contributing to training has long been one of the main concerns of occupational psychology – this is not surprising given that training involves learning and that learning is a central issue in psychology. Training is one of the core skills of occupational psychology. People with qualifications in and experience of occupational psychology have been employed in different capacities in training and development roles in government organizations, private companies, and consultancy groups. The discipline offers many benefits and perspectives to help resolve training issues and problems and has also been at the root of many methods and techniques that have now become part of the routine practices within human resource management. Training specialists must be alert to the wider issues regarding the problems presented to them and need the skills and confidence to deal with them. They must understand how training fits into the wider organizational context.
Governments have traditionally played a significant role in the promotion and development of occupational psychology with regard to training, because of their responsibilities for employment, military, health and other services. People with an occupational psychology background have been employed directly by governments in areas such as job training, military training and health, and safety. Government agencies have also been a major sponsor of training research and development; such investment has often provided the major underpinning of developments in this area. Governments can also affect the impetus for change in organizations through legislation, taxation, and the general health of the economy, which in turn can create more disposable income to create new demands for products and services, affect the supply of raw materials and services, or put such pressure on consumers that markets are adversely affected. Also, government initiatives can affect health and safety requirements, fiscal issues, competition laws, and ecological concerns, working with new technology and employment practices. Such changes prompt new ways of organizing and delivering these products and services, creating new training need.
The other major source of employment and funding in training and development, where occupational psychology plays a specialist role, is private companies. Specialists might be employed directly within an organization’s training and development functions or in consultancy offering services to clients. Organizations often employ their own specialist training and development staffs who have been recruited from the organization’s own ranks. Organizations often prefer this approach because they feel it is more appropriate for their training staff to have operational and business experience than for them to be experts in training or occupational psychology. It is often assumed that training is simply a matter of following well-established procedures and principles.
Standard methods. It is often necessary to understand variations that have not been responsive to the standard procedures. This entails understanding how people learn and how training can support this learning Training and development staff are generally responsible for maintaining company training and development systems, to judge training needs and to organize the delivery of training and development. Practitioners with an occupational psychology background may be encountered in departments concerned with organizational development where they are engaged with the processes of organizational change of which training and development is a part. It is impossible to be more specific than this.
Title – A Study On Effectiveness Of Training At Maldham Foods And Beverages, Chennai
Author – Noorul Islam Hammad
College – Measi Institute Of Management
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