11th CommerceEnvironment Education EVSHSC Projects

Minimizing Crop Damage And Impact of Birds and Animals Near Forest Areas


A forest is a massive place dominated by the aid of trees. Hundreds of greater particular definitions of forest are used at some point in the world, incorporating elements such as tree density, tree height, and ecological function. In this project, we discuss birds and animals damage the crops, significantly higher in fields that are closer to forest areas. According to the broadly used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests included approx. 30 per cent of global land. In this project, we shall discuss Bird and animals damage the crops, significantly higher in fields that are closer to forest areas.

Agriculture is the science and artwork of cultivating plant life and livestock. Agriculture used to be the essential improvement in the upward push of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created meals surpluses that enabled humans to live in cities. The records of agriculture started lots of years ago.


This project aims to gather information about Bird and animals damage the crops, significantly higher in fields which are closer to forest areas.

There are essential objectives for this project.  They are listed below.


  •  To understand the need for farms away from the forest area
  •  To know how wildlife affects the fields of farms
  •  To understand how farmers, decide to buy farmland
  •  To know the dangers of wildlife to the farms and humans
  •  To ascertain any doubts regarding damage caused by wildlife to the farms


The method used to gather the required information on the project is an internet survey method that falls under the secondary data collection method. The Internet has extensive knowledge on this subject. It has a vast collection of data on wildlife and birds damaging farms near to the forest. The survey for this project has unveiled information that is covered within major few points. They are listed below and explained in a detailed report of the project.

  • What is the farm?
  • Factors to consider before selecting a farmland
  • Why are birds and animals a threat to farmers?


  • What is the farm?

A farm is a region of land that is dedicated especially to agricultural procedures with the principal goal of producing food and different crops; it is the primary facility in food production. The title is used for specialized units such as arable farms, vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy, pig and chicken farms, and land used for the manufacturing of herbal fibres, biofuel, and different commodities. It consists of ranches, feedlots, orchards, plantations and estates, smallholdings, and interest farms and includes the farmhouse and agricultural structures as correctly as the land. In current times the term has been prolonged to encompass such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms, each of which can function on land or sea.


Farming originated independently in one-of-a-kind components of the world, as hunter-gatherer societies transitioned to food manufacturing alternatively than meal capture. It may additionally have begun about 12,000 years in the past with the domestication of cattle in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, quickly to be accompanied by the cultivation of crops. Modern units tend to specialize in the plants or animals pleasant appropriate to the region, with their completed merchandise being bought for the retail market or for processing, with farm merchandise being traded around the world.

Modern farms in developed international locations are exceptionally mechanized. In the United States, cattle may additionally be raised on rangeland and completed in feedlots. The mechanization of crop manufacturing has introduced a notable decrease in the number of agricultural employees needed. In Europe, standard household farms are giving way to larger manufacturing units. In Australia, some farms are very massive due to the fact the land is unable to assist an excessive stocking density of cattle due to the point of climatic conditions.

  • Factors to consider before selecting farmland

Points to consider in location decision for a farming purpose:

Climatic factors

By this, we are referring to rainfall, humidity, wind strain and direction, temperature, etc. These elements need to be beneficial to the farming company you select, be it vegetation or animals. Different kinds of plants do nicely underneath a limited range of climatic conditions, likewise individual animals. It is, therefore, applicable to think about the elements that will promote your farming company and keep away from those that will not.

Socio-economic factors

These elements consist of infrastructure, population, settlements, market, labour, and others. Support includes access roads, electricity, water, telecommunication, fitness facilities, police station, etc. The presence of these makes it appropriate to site a project like a poultry farm. However, proximity to the city agreement may make it unsuitable.

Another instance is protection and health concerns, which will require the presence of health services and police presence, respectively. You might also want a market close to your farm and available labour. Careful notions and research should be carried out to determine the suitability of a farm located in the presence or absence of all or an aggregate of the socio-economic factors.

Edaphic factors

These are associated with soil stipulations like structure, fertility, texture, porosity, consistency, etc. These soil elements decide the appropriate farming business enterprise be it vegetation or animals. Lands with clayey soils may additionally be ideal for fish farming, with all different elements favourable. Some lands are susceptible to flooding or erosion. These lands, relying on your assets, may additionally be managed to set up a profitable farm, e.g., fish farming. However, with a crop farm like vegetables and tree plants in mind, keep away from such areas as they will no longer favour the crops.

Environmental factors

Your farming operations do not have to have a poor effect on the environment. Some farming activities, when uncovered to humans or animals, can be harmful. This is usually the case when farms are area close to the city area. On the other hand, the surroundings may additionally have a negative effect on your farm, decreasing productivity. Some farms are pressured to move or change operations, and the city trends catch up. It is consequently very essential to reflect on consideration this aspect in the choice of your site for farming.

Government policies

The various government makes policies that assist them in gaining an increase in agriculture. Take benefit from it and set up your farm in an area in all likelihood to gain from the implementation of the policy. For example, the government may additionally determine to reduce taxes for farms in a specific area or region of the country. Also, the government may moreover amplify the allocation of subsidized fertilizer and different agro-inputs for some areas of the nation. You may additionally construct a farm in such areas to take benefit of it. You ought to consider Government policies in your area determination for farming purposes.

Biotic factors

This is concerning the presence or absence of some hazardous or beneficial organisms. In location determination for farming purposes, you may also consider the herbal populace of individual plants like bees and other pollinators. And much less pest and disease-causing organisms. Where the farming project includes tree crops, farmlands in forest areas are preferred. However, locations with a long record of pests and illnesses may additionally be avoided. Also, you need to be careful in deciding on an area with certain dominant weeds that are challenging to control.

Economic factors

If you prefer your agricultural enterprise to thrive, then this element is the most vital to consider. It consists of the cost, advantages, and terms of lease or acquisition. You want to elevate out a feasibility study of the location to make certain that it will yield ample returns to maintain your farm. This will provide you with a notion and higher understanding, at the time of area selection, of the area that will offer you the absolute best returns, taking into consideration all the other factors.

  • Why are birds and animals a threat to farmers?

In India, most of the human beings whose farming activities are frequently impacted with the aid of the presence and abundance of ‘problem’ wild animal species are the resource-poor neighbourhood subsistence. Various research has proven that the preceding study has typically targeted perception solely of the socio-economic dynamics of human-wildlife interplay with the very constrained perception of the spatial distribution of this conflict. Such a strategy has triggered extensive difficulties in drawing contextual fighting resolution measures, therefore the need to map the extent and severity of this conflict.

Participatory two GIS, a two tool that contains neighbourhood expertise and information with technical expertise, offers an efficient and high-quality way to map the extent and severity of harm brought about by wild animals on agricultural land. This research has proven that crop harm through wildlife critically impacts the livelihoods of the farmers. This can lead to an improved wrong human mindset towards the natural world with probably negative consequences for conservation. This study has additionally proven that the trouble has a peak in the dry season coinciding with the availability of alternative food (maturation of the crops) and the low quality/scarcity of the forage. Crop harm via wild animals is an extreme issue in some components of the district. Field surveys confirmed that on a standard, 20% of the crop used to be harmed with the aid of wild animals. Forty-seven species of vegetation have been prone to animal damage. Highly nutritious plant like wheat has been extra vulnerable.  Field surveys and information accumulated from the Forest workplaces confirmed an excessive incidence of crop harm in Northern regions observed in Southern areas.


After analyzing the gathered data,

India is recognized for its rich biodiversity and agriculture. The existing bird and animal management strategies have been determined to have far-reaching consequences on the agro-ecosystem. They are disadvantageous to each bio-diversity and agriculture as they are neither scientific nor eco-friendly and result in endangering bird and animal species while no longer making a great deal of a distinction to avoid agricultural loss. There is a want for interdisciplinary research in the improvement of eco-friendly bird repelling techniques. It is additionally concluded that visible estimation of the crops, fruits, and grains harm is no longer an accurate injury evaluation technique, and there is the future scope for research in the improvement of some scientific approaches for the evaluation of these losses in India.

The principal hazard to birds and animals is habitat destruction, fragmentation, and hunting. In addition to this, pesticide poisoning is additionally one of the elements of bird and animal extinction. The inflexible framework must be made to keep away from the killing of birds, animals and additionally interdisciplinary research need to be carried out with the assistance of professionals in two Ornithology, two Zoology, Physics, and Engineering which leads to a minimised harm to farmers and additionally amplify in the existence of birds and animals. There is a great need for an environmental two influence evaluation to estimate the agricultural zones of India affected by such damage. It is additionally critical to perceive the areas where the killing of birds and animals is carried out for exceptional motives and appropriate mitigation measures need to be taken via concerned authorities to keep their lives.


To successfully conclude my findings,

n India, almost 65% of human beings are directly or indirectly dependent on the agricultural region for financial survival. The annual profits of farmers are considerably influenced by the aid of the yield of the crops, which is always reducing due to natural phenomena and terrible technological advancement. However, the specific interest needs to be paid to the damage brought on by birds and animals. While the exact measure of the loss in yield related to birds and animals is unknown, farmers combine a variety of ordinary and traditional methods to develop and store grains and fruits. Many of the used techniques result in the extinction of uncommon birds and animals. Therefore, there is a need to enhance alternative methods, such as communication with the farmers, grain storage authorities and specialists in the fields of ornithology, agricultural sectors, and area visits, to avoid irreversible damage to the Indian biodiversity. This research analyzes the loss of yield of crops due to birds and animals, explores repelling strategies adopted by the farmers, and addresses the consequences of built-in policies on the bird and animal biodiversity in India. The project unveils the significance of an interdisciplinary strategy to strengthen an eco-friendly technique to limit the loss of each of the birds and the crops.


In the discussion with my guidance counselor on this project, it is revealed:

Just as agriculture and land use have modified incredibly in India in the previous one hundred years, so have attitudes towards wildlife. This has been as authentic of the scientist as of the common public and the agriculturist. The early premise used to be simple; animals have been both dangerous and beneficial, in various degrees.


After discussing this project with friends and peers, they have individual opinions and recommendations. They are given below:

There should be lectures all around the cities and rural areas for farmers to know the dangers of wildlife to farms.

There should be seminars in schools and colleges as well about this topic.


My profound gratitude to all the faculty members of the Department, for their timely assistance and encouragement throughout my research work.

I duly acknowledge the encouragement and support from the research scholars in the Department, and all my colleagues and friends.

It gives me immense pleasure to take the opportunity to all the people who are directly or indirectly involved in the completion of my project based on

With deep reverence, I offer my deepest gratitude _____, without whom this project could not have been fulfilled.

Lastly, I thank Almighty, my parents, family members, friends, and teachers for their constant encouragement and support, without which this project would not be possible.

Name of School/College


  • https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/16-002-x/2015002/article/14133-eng.htm\
  • https://www.iied.org/interface-between-forests-agriculture-climate-change-understanding-implications-for-redd
  • https://www.sodra.com/en/sodra-history/the-people/the-farmer-and-the-forest/
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256494027_Damage_to_agricultural_yield_due_to_farmland_birds_present_repelling_techniques_and_its_impacts_an_insight_from_the_Indian_perspective
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