Project On Child Labour – Business Studies Class 12

CHILD LABOUR

INTRODUCTION

Work that deprives them of their childhood, interface with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful comes under child labour. Legislatures across the world prohibit child labour as a predominant feature in Indian Society. The 2011 National census of India found the total number of child labourers, aged 5-14 to be at 435 million, and the total child population to be 259.64 million in that age group. The 2011 national Census of India found the total number of child labourers aged 5-14 to be at 4.35 million, and the total child population to be 259.64 million in that age group. As per the child labour prohibition and regulation Act,1986, amended in 2016 a ‘child’ is defined as any person below the age of 14 and the CLPR Act prohibits employment of a child in any employment including as domestic help. It is a cognizable criminal offence to employ a child for any work

DEFINITION

the term ‘child labour suggests ILd is best defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.it refers to work whose schedule interferes with their ability to attend regular school or work that affects in any manner their ability to focus during the war. India’s Census 2001office defines child labour as participation of a childless that is 17 years of age in any economically productive activity with or without compensation, wages or profit. Such participation could be physical or mental or both. This work includes part-time help or unpaid work on the frame, family enterprise or in any other economic activity such as cultivation and milk production for sale or domestic consumption.

HISTORY

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

During the ‘Industrial Revolution’, children, as young as four, were employed in production factories with dangerous and often fatal working conditions. The use of children as labourers is now considered by wealthy countries as a human rights violation, and is outlawed with some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour

HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISES

The Homebasedmanufacturing across the United States and Europe employed children in tedious work poverty and misery were common factors responsible for the situation.

21st CENTURY

Child Labour is still common in many parts of the world. Estimates for child labour vary of the ranges from250 from 304 million if children aged 5-227 involved in any economic activity are counted and light occasional work is excluded ILOestimated three were 153 million child labour aged 5-14 world wide in 2008

BONDED CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA

Bonded Child Labour is a system of forced, labour under which the child or child’s parents agree, oral or written, with a creditor. The child performs work as in-kind repayment of credit. In in1977, India passed legislation that prohibits solicitation or use of bonded labour by anyone or anyone included children. Evidence of continuing bonded child labour continues. According to a TLO report, the extent of bonded child labour is difficult to determine, but estimates from various social activist groups range up to 3,50,000 in 2001.

AREAS WHERE CHILD LABOUR IS EXERCISED

  • Diamond Industry
  • Fireworks manufacture
  • Silk manufacture
  • Carpet weaving
  • Domestic labour
  • Mining

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR

Child labour is caused by seven factors. Some of them include

  • POVERTY
    Children who come from poor families may be forced to wor to support their sibblings and parents or supplement the householdincome,when expenses are more then the parents earnongs.It is a huge problem especially in developing countries where parents are unable to generate income due to the lack of employment opportunities or education children can be found employed in mines or howking in the streets to earn money.
  • LOW ASPIRATION
    Low aspiraation by parents and children is a major cause of child labour because in such a situation,being employed inn a local factory or selling grocery in the streets is the normal way of life.to these types of children and parents, success only belongs to a certain region or group of people.They do noot aspire to become professsionals in the society or great enterpreneurs .It is a mindset that forms the very foundation of child labour.
  • HUGE DEMAND FOR UNSKILLED LABOUR
    CHildren are mostly unnskilled and provide a chep source of labour,making them an attractive option for many greedy employers.Child labour increases the margin of profits for such entrepreneurs whose only objective is proft maximizationeven if it comes at the expense of ethics and good business practices.these types of employers can also force childrento work under unfavourable conditions through manipulations
  • ILLITEARCY
    A society with many educated people understands the importance of going to school and pusruing dreams.Children have the ability and time to be become whatever they aspire to be.illiteracy ,on the other hand,make it difficult for many people to understand the importance of eduction.Illeteare people view education as a preserve of the privilage in the society
  • EARLY MARRIAGES
    Marrying at an early age is a major contributing factor to over population.young parents are able to sirea lot of children beacuse they remain fertile for a long time.Having many children with little or noresources to support them leads to child labour.older children are forced to work in order to help their parents support the family
  • HIGH COST OF EDUCATION
    Quality education is expenisive .To many parents who live in abject poverty,priority is giiven to providing food for the family because education is to exppensive to afford especially when there are many children to pay school fees for .Instead of letting children stay at home because there is lack of many to send them to schiol,parents opt to have them workiing as unskilled labourers to help support the family.
  • OVER POPULATION
    There are limited resources and more mouths to feed .Children are employed in various forms of work.As the population is increasing,people are finding it difficult to search jobs.So,the people on or below poverty line find it difficult to have suitable jo that is why they encourage their children to work.
  • URBANISATION
    MNC’s and export industries in the developing world employ child workers,particularly in garment industries because it helps in reducing the cost of product which leads to more demand.
  • ORPHANS
    Children born out of wedlock,childrne with no parents and relatives often do not find anyone to support them.Thus they are forced to work for survival.
  • WILLINGNESS TO EXPLOIT CHILDREN
    Even if a family is very poor, the incidence of child labour will be very low unless there are people willing to exploit these children. Employees often justify the use of children by claiming that a child’s small hands are vital for the production of certain products such as hand-knotted carpets and deligated glass-war, although evidence for this is limited.
  • UNEMPLOYMENT OF OLDERS
    Olders often find it difficullt to get jobs.These industrialists and factory owners find it perfect to employ children.this is so because theycan payless and extract more work.They will nt create any union problem also because they are not able too form unions att an early age.

CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOUR

Child labour has several negative impacts. Some of them include

  • LOSS OF QUALITY CHILDHOOD
    It is important for human beings to enjoy evry stage of their development.A child should play with friends and make memories for a lifetime.Youths should explore life and form strong foundations thateould define their adult lives.Child labour,teherfore leads to losssof quality childhood as children wwill be deprived of the opportunity to enjoy the amazing experiences that come with being young.
  • HEALTH ISSUES
    Child labour can also lead to healthcomplications due to under-nourishment and poor working conditions.It is highly unliely that people who employ children also have the moral capacity to ensure that they have good working conitions ,working in places such as mines and badly conditioned factories may result in lifetime healthissues for children employed to work in these places.
  • MENTAL TRAUMA
    Issues such as bullying,sexual exploitation,and unfavourable working hours may result in mental trauma in these children.They will find it hard to forget the because societal misfit because of bad childhood experiences.Child Labour may also result in the lack of emotional growth and thus intensitivity.
  • ILLITERACY
    Children that are employed do not have the time to go to school.They spend a lot of time in their work stationsads the days and years go by .the lack of education and illiteracy makes them individuals with limited opportunities as far as employment is concerned.
  • GROWTH EFICIENCY
    It is prevalent among working childrenwho end to be shorter and weaker than other children these deficiencies also impact their adult life.
  • HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
    These diseases are widespread,among the one million children forced in to prostitution every year, pregnancy,drug eaddiction and mental illness are also common among prostittutes .
  • EXHAUSTION AND MALNUTRITION
    It is a result of underdeveloped children performing heavy maual labour,working long hours in unbearable conditions and not earning enough to feed themselves adequately.

SOLUTIONS TO CHILD LABOUR PROBLEMS

How can child labour be reduced or Completely Eradicated?

Every child born has the right to have dreams and pursue those dreams. even though the realization of some of these aspirations may be limited by several challenges, it is still possible to overcome them and achieve the highest levels of success. There is a need to involve various stakeholders to realize this objective. These are some of how the problem of child labour can be addressed.

  • FREE EDUCATION
    It is the key to eliminating child labour. Parents that do not have money for school fees can use this as an opportunity to provide their children with education.it has already proved to be aa success in many places around the globe and with more effort,the cases of child labour will greatly reduce.
  • MORAL POLISHING
    Child labour should not be entertained at all .it is legally and morally wrong.Children should not be allowed to provide labour at the expense of gettinng an education and enjoying their childhood.Factory owners,shopkeepers,and industries among others should not employ children.The society should be educated on the negative impacts of child labour so that it becomes an isse that is frowned upon whenever it occurs.this type of morale polishing would act as a deterrent to people who intend to employ children and use them as a source of cheap labour.
  • CREATE DEMAND FOR SKILLED AND TRAINED WORKERS
    Due to this,child labour cases willl reduce since almost all child labourers fall under the unskilled worker category.it will lead to adult employment as the demand for skilled labour rises establishing skill-bases learning centers,vocational training centers, adn technical trainig institues improves literacy and contributes to the availability of skilled and trained workers in the job market.
  • AWARENESS
    Parents should be made aware that sending their children to work has legal ramifications and the law would take its cause if they are found to be aiding and abetting this vice.it is the ognorance amongmany parents and members of the society that makes them participatein child labour practices.Conducting a campaign to create awareness about its harmful effects would eliminate the practice.
  • EMPOWERMENT OF THE POOR PEOPLE
    Empowering poor people through knwoledge and income generating projects would go a long way in reducing cases of child labour education to parents is also must to ensure that rights of children are not used as a source of labours.

CHILD LABOUR LAWS IN INDIA

The constitution of India in the Fundamental Right and the Directive Principles of state policy prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or engagement in any other hazardous employment. the constitution also envisioned that India shall be 1960, provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age 6-14 years. India has a federal form of government so child labour is a matter on which both the central government and state governments can legislate. The major national legislative developments include the following

  • THE FACTORIES ACT OF 1948
    The act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory. The act also provided rules on who, when and how long pre-adults aged 15-18 years can be employed in any factory.
  • THE MINES ACT OF 1952
    It prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine
  • THE CHILD LABOURACT OF 1986
    This law prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations as identified by the law. This list was expanded in 2006 and again in 2008
  • THE JUVENILE JUSTICE OF CHILDREN ACT OF 2000
    This law made it a crime punishable with a prison term, for anyone to procure or employ a child in any hazardous employment or in a bondage
  • THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT OF 2009
    This law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6-14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25% of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.

INITIATIVES AGAINST CHILD LABOUR

India has all along followed a proactive policy on the matter of tackling the problem of child labour India has always stood for constitutional and statutory development measures required for eliminating child labour. the Indian constitution has consciously incorporated provisions to secure compulsory universal elementary education as well as labour protection for child labour commissions in Inda have gone into problems of child labour. The constitution of Inda also provides certain rights to children and prohibit child labour.

  • In 1979,the Indian government formed the Gurupadswamy Committee to find about child labour and means to tackle it
  • The Child Labour Prohibition and Regualtion Act was enacted based on the recomendations of the committee in 1986.
  • A national policy in child labour was formulated in 1987 to focus on rehability children working in hazardous occupations
  • The ministry of labour and Employment had implemented around 100 industry-specific national Child Labour Projectsto rehabilitate the child workers since 1988.
  • The child labour prohibition and Regulation Act which is peice of legislation that prohibits the engagement of children in certain employment and regulates the conditions of work of children.
  • the national policy in child labour seeks to adopt a sequential approach with focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupation and process in the first instance.
  • The ministry of labour and employment functions to provide and supervise a range of policies concerning child labour in India.
  • NGO’s such as Care India,Child Right and You,Global march against child labour have been implimented to combat child labour through eduucation and accessibility to resources.

NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

Many NGO’s like Bachpan Andolan, CARE INDIA, Child Rights and You, Global March against child labour, RideIndia etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India. Pratham is India’s largest Non-government not organisation with the mission ‘Energy Child in school and learning well. Starting in 1994 Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer school to children irrespective of their gender, religion and social background. It has introduced low-cost education models that are sustainable and reproducible. In 2005, Pratham was involved in coordinating a child labour rescue operation with India’s Ministry of labour and police, when around 500 children were rescued from zari’s sweatshops in New Delhi. The problem of child labour in India is so huge that it depends on support and contribution from every part of society to completely eradicate this problem. In recent times, govt has taken some concrete steps for improving the situations of child labourers. Providing free education, encouraging parents to send their kids to schools with awareness campaigns and allocation of funds towards child health and development etc. are some of the steps taken by the state. among the UN organizations, UNICEF has remained instrumental in initiating several steps against child labour.UNICEF has been well supported by civil society organizations and NGO’s are working t improve the situation in this field. these, NGOs focus on different problems concerning child labour let’s have a look at some of the top NGO’s dealing with the menace of child labour.

  • World Vision India,New Delhi
  • Action Aid india,New Delhi
  • Concerned for working Against Child labour,New Delhi
  • Child Rights and You (CRY),mumbai
  • CREDA (Centre for Rural Education and Development Action),Uttar Pradesh
  • CARE India ,New Delhi

We cannot undermine the huge role played by NGO’s in handling child labour issues. Specific NGO’sfocus on certain areas of improvement for instance, if Action Aid Inda Concentrates on child Education and on-street and working children then CRY target underprivileged children who don’t have basic resources to sustain themselves.NGO’s are resources to sustain themselves.NGOs are carrying child development activities all over India. Some children educational NGOs engage themselves in offering free education to poor kids they teach children living in slums. Quite a few NGO”’sfocus on girls education.it has been witnessed that girls are made to work whereas the boy child is allowed to study but that needs to be charged. So community organizations seek to improve the quality of life of socially disadvantaged girls with the sheep of health, education and social mobilization, NGOs are helping street children and in different parts of the country.

CONCLUSION

Child labour is not just an affront to the rights of a child but also a symbol of a society that has lost its way. We should therefore all strive to ensure that the fundamental rights of children are protected and that they are accorded the opportunity to go after their dreams and aspirations. The future is much bright with the younger generation having a good foundation for success. The state of Education in India also needs to be improved. High literacy and dropout rates are reflective of the inadequacy of the educational system. Poverty plays a role in the ineffectiveness of the educational system. Dropout rates are high because children are forced to work in order to support their families. The attitudes of the people also contribute to the lack of environment parents feel that work develops skills that can be used to earn an income, while education does not help in this matter. Compulsory education may be helpful in regard to these attitudes. The examples of Sri Lanka and Kerala show that compulsory education has worked in these areas. There are differences between Sri Lanka, Kerala and the rest of India. Child labour cannot be eliminated by focusing on one determinant, for example; Education or by the brutal enforcement of child labour law. the government of Inda must ensure that the needs of the poor are filled before attacking child labour. If poverty is addressed, the need for child labour will automatically diminish.No matter how hard India tries, child labour always will exist until the need for it is removed. The development of India as a nation is being hampered by Child labour. Children are growing up illiterate because they have been working and not attending school. A cycle of poverty is formed and the need for child labour is reborn after every generation. Indias need to address the situation by tackling the underlying causes of child labour through governmental policies and the enforcement of these policies. Only then will India succeed In the fight against child Labour. The innocence of a child should never be taken away for the purpose of making the lives of adults easier.it is both unfair and morally unacceptable.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that BHANU of Class XII -C of commerce of Ryan International School, New Delhi has completed his project file under my supervision .he has taken proper care mad shown utmost sincerity in the completion of this project. I certify that his project is up to my expectations and as per the guidelines issued by CBSE

Ms Sonia Ahluwalia
Commerce Dept
Ryan International School
Vasant Kunj
New Delhi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very thankful to my Business Studies teacher ms Sonia Ahluwalia who helped me in qualifying the deep concepts of the subject and gave me valuable suggestions and guidance for the completion of my project. She helped me to understand and remember important details of the project. She gave me her full guidance in the completion of my project successfully


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