- 1 INTRODUCTION:
- 2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
- 3 METHOD AND METHODOLOGY:
- 4 DETAIL REPORT OF PROJECT:
- 5 ANALYSIS OF DATA:
- 6 CONCLUSION:
- 7 DISCUSSION:
- 8 SUGGESTION:
- 9 ACKNOWLEDGMENT:
- 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE:
Fish are very various animals and can be labeled in many ways. This article is an overview of some of which fish are categorized. Although most fish species have probably been located and described, about 250 new ones are nonetheless observed each and every year. In this project we discuss fish species diversity is significantly lower in reservoirs than in rivers. According to Fish Base, 33000 species of fish had been described with the aid of March 2015. That is more than the mixed complete of all different vertebrate species: mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and birds.
Fish species variety is roughly divided equally between marine (oceanic) and freshwater ecosystems. Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific establish the center of range for marine fishes, whereas global freshwater fishes are most plentiful in giant river basins of tropical rainforests, especially the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong basins. More than 6000 fish species have habitat in Neotropical freshwater, such that Neotropical fishes serve about 10% of all vertebrate species on the Earth. Exceptionally rich sites in the Amazon basin can comprise more magnificent freshwater fish species.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
This project aims to find out fish species diversity is significantly lower in reservoirs than in rivers.
There are essential objectives for this project. They are given below.
- To understand fish diversity
- To know how fish diverse
- To understand the fish diversity in rivers and reservoirs
- To see the survival of various fish species in reservoirs
- To ascertain any doubts regarding fish diversity
METHOD AND METHODOLOGY:
The method used to gather the required information on the project is an internet survey method that falls under the secondary data collection method. The Internet has extensive knowledge on this subject. It has a vast collection of data on the diversity of fishes. The survey for this project has unveiled information that is covered within major few points. They are listed below and explained in a detailed report of the project.
- Diversity of fish species
- Fish diversity in river
- Fish diversity in reservoirs
- Importance of Biodiversity of fish species
DETAIL REPORT OF PROJECT:
Diversity of fish species
It is essential to understand the fish species diversity, abundance, and distribution in the reservoirs to advance administration to conservation programs. Studies of geographical patterns of diversity, organization, and species combination of freshwater fishes are favorable to check out aspects determining the arrangement of the fish community.
Biodiversity is necessary for the future sustainability of herbal resources that encompass business fisheries. While it is axiomatic that biodiversity is integral for sustainable, productive fisheries, there is exceptionally little assisting evidence. Fish species are also a significant index of ecological wellbeing. The abundance and fitness of fish will exhibit the competence of water bodies.
Fish diversity in river
Freshwater fish or river fish are now not only the most various team of vertebrates; however, they also have the most significant percentage of threatened species. Fish assemblages are also a necessary element in aquatic ecosystems, which are used as one of four biological indicators for aquatic ecosystem assessment. However, freshwater fish had decreased potential for inter-basin movement in the exceptionally constrained space. In contrast, marine fish had a pretty free motion in the vast space, which was once at the root of the conservation troubles of the former. Also, fish are essential elements of the financial system for many international locations as they have been a staple to the food plan of many people. Over the past few decades, fish assets decreased dramatically, and endemic species have confronted continuous threats globally. Dams, overfishing, pollution, deforestation, land erosion, and different human things to do are viewed as essential threats to fish biodiversity. Therefore, the conservation of fish biodiversity has ended up more significant importance.
Fish diversity in reservoirs
In reservoirs, the lotic water of the upper reaches will become lentic as water techniques the dam. This enables extraordinary types of fishery called reservoir fishery, to suit the ecology of the reservoir. A reservoir has its peculiarities in which it differs from natural lakes. The riverine ecology of the water of the top reaches becomes more and more changed into lacustrine ecology in the reservoir. The current low degree of fish manufacturing in Indian reservoirs can be attributed to inadequate management since many of them have excessive propensities of production from a limo-chemical factor of view. In many of the reservoirs, the exorbitant fee of the essential and secondary productivity is now not channeled to fish production. Insufficient appreciation of the reservoir ecosystem regularly comes in the way for adopting high-quality management measures. The Indian reservoirs are uncovered to a wide range of climates from the temperate Himalayas in the north to the intense tropical in the southern peninsula. Apart from being the essential component influencing the prevailing local weather of the region, the latitudinal place is vital in finding out the quantum of solar radiation reachable at the water floor for primary productivity.
The manufacturing disposition of a reservoir is purposeful via a set of crucial environmental criteria, distinctly the water and soil character which, are tasks of the geo-climatic preconditions below which it lives. Hence, geology, climate, topology, and a variety of physiographic criteria play a crucial role in entrusting the reservoirs their underlying advantageous ability. India, being a us of continental proportions, its reservoirs are spread over several sorts of terrains, and soil kinds exposed to various climatic prerequisites. They acquire drainage from a range of catchment areas.
Importance of Biodiversity of fish species
Biodiversity is vital for the future sustainability of marine herbal assets that encompass industrial fisheries. While it is axiomatic that biodiversity is crucial for sustainable, productive fisheries, there is exceptionally little supporting evidence. Fisheries that exploit a range of species or a variety of populations may additionally have extra steady catches than fisheries that use a single species. The Pacific salmon fishery in Bristol Bay, Alaska, exploited a stock two complex two of two numerous hundred discrete two spawning populations. The contribution of some geographic components and different lifestyle histories and societies to fisheries yield has been minor in one local weather regime yet dominant in another. Maintaining such diversity or organic complexity of population constructions can solely build resilience and insure against local weather exchange
ANALYSIS OF DATA:
After analyzing the gathered data,
Over the last 100 years, the riverine ecological community has Detroiters from profound human interference developing in surroundings loss. As aftermath, many fish species have significantly become threatened, appropriate in rivers where the enormous appeal is placed on freshwaters. In the present study, various reservoirs were selected along the stretch of waterways. Water samples were assembling each month and brought to the laboratory and evaluated with the conventional approach. Statistical correlation between fish species richness and selected hydrological characteristics demonstrated that air conditions, water conditions, pH, and free oxygen and carbon dioxide much determined the fish species arrangement. A total of 19 species of fishes belonging to five sub-families and two orders and six genera were collected from the selected study sites. Thus, it may be contained that there are converse relations between fish diversity and the peak of the river.
To successfully conclude my findings,
According to fish, the assemblage is much less at the starting place because of high water present-day however is more in the direction of the confluence of the river as the water content is extra at that point. Besides this, he additionally counseled that the fish species abundance and distribution are pretty influenced through altitudinal and longitudinal zonation of any specific river system. It is furthermore documented that fish communities in the riverine machine usually follow a pattern of increasing species richness, diversity, and abundance from upstream to downstream.
Species variety is distinct sampling sites indicated that altered habitat and excessive altitude assist much fewer fish species. In contrast, variety habitat like shallow pool and deep pools are the essential habitats contributing to the maximum diversity, sub-family Cyprininae emerged as the most dominant crew. Therefore, the protection of these particular habitats is recommended for the conservation and management of fish biodiversity.
The discussion with my guidance counselor on this project, it is revealed:
The present investigation printed that the natural habitat variables play a vital role in the distribution of fishes in the river Tons and habitat alteration introduced about a danger to freshwater fish fauna. It used to be also located that among physio-chemical attributes, air temperature, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free CO2 are positively correlated with fish assemblages and influenced the fish distribution. A similar sample was once located using who attributed the fish assemblage shape variation on various elements like river depth, speed of the water, water temperature, substrate, and water quality. Recently the value of habitat variables was encouraged, cautioned that quite several water first-rate parameters need to be watched often to maintain the aquatic habitat favorable for the existence of fish.
After discussing this project with friends and peers, they have individual opinions and suggestions. They are given below:
Awareness should be spread about pollution that leads to the extinction of fish species.
There should be awareness in children about various fish species.
There should be a study seminar in schools and colleges about the diversity of fish species in various water bodies.
My profound gratitude to all the faculty members of the department, for their timely assistance and encouragement throughout my research work.
I duly acknowledge the encouragement and support from the research scholars in the department, and all my colleagues and friends.
It gives me immense pleasure to take the opportunity to all the people who are directly or indirectly involved in the completion of my project based on Fish species diversity is significantly lower in reservoirs than in rivers.
With deep reverence, I offer my deepest gratitude _____, without whom this project could not have been fulfilled.
Lastly, I thank Almighty, my parents, family members, friends, and teachers for their constant encouragement and support, without which this project would not be possible.
Name of School/College
BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE: