11th CommerceEnvironment Education EVSHSC Projects

Project On Gender Differences in Environmental Concerns On Scarcity of Drinking Water

Females Rank Scarcity of Drinking Water as a More Serious Environmental Concern than Males Do


Water scarcity is the lack of clean water resources to meet water demand. It impacted every continent and used to be listed in 2019 through the World Economic Forum as one of the most significant global risks in terms of conceivable effect over the next decade. In this project, we are focusing on females ranking scarcity of drinking water as a more environmental severe concern than males do. It is manifested by way of partial or no pleasure of expressed demand, monetary opposition for water volume or quality, disputes between users, irreversible depletion of groundwater, and poor influences on the environment. Two-thirds of the world population that is 4 billion people stay underneath conditions of extreme water scarcity at least one month of the year. Half a billion human beings in the world face severe water shortage all year round. Half of the world’s greatest cities trip water scarcity.

A mere 0.014% of all water on Earth is both sparkling and easily accessible. Of the ultimate water, 97% is saline, and a little less than 3% is difficult to access. Technically, there is an ample amount of freshwater on a world scale. Demand is expected to outstrip furnish via 40% in 2030 if modern trends continue.


This project aims to gather information regarding the topic, “Females rank scarcity of drinking water as a more serious environmental concern than males do.”

There are essential objectives for this project.  They are given below.


  •  To understand water scarcity
  •  To know the impact of water scarcity globally
  •  To understand the importance of water
  •  To see the effect of water scarcity on women
  •  To ascertain any doubts regarding water scarcity
  •  To understand in detail the effects and affects of water scarcity


The method used to gather the required information on the project is an internet survey method that falls under the secondary data collection method. The Internet has extensive knowledge on this subject. It has a vast collection of data on water scarcity. The survey for this project has unveiled information that is covered within major few points. They are listed below and explained in a detailed report of the project.

  • What is water scarcity?
  • Water scarcity in India
  • Water scarcity affecting women more than men in India
  • The causes of water scarcity in India
  • Measures taken against water scarcity in India


  • What is water scarcity?

Water scarcity is the absence of adequate available water resources to meet the needs of water usage within an area. It already impacts each continent and around 2.8 billion humans around the world at least one month out of each and every year. More than 1.2 billion human beings lack get admission to clean, consuming water. Water shortage includes water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis.

While the thinking of water stress is fantastically new, it is the situation of obtaining sources of clean water for use during a length of time. It may additionally result in further depletion and deterioration of handy water resources. Water shortages may furthermore be brought about with the aid of climate change, such as altered weather patterns together with droughts or floods, expanded pollution, and expanded human demand and overuse of water. A water crisis is a state of affairs where the accessible potable, unpolluted water within a place is much less than that region’s demand. Water shortage is being driven via two converging phenomena: developing freshwater use and depletion of available freshwater resources.

Water scarcity can be a result of two mechanisms: physical (absolute) water scarcity and financial water scarcity, the place physical water shortage is a result of inadequate herbal water assets to furnish a region’s demand, and monetary water scarcity is a result of negative management of the adequate handy water resources.

  • Water scarcity in India

Water shortage in India is due to each natural and human-made causes. The main factors that are contributed to water troubles encompass the corrupt administration of resources, lack of authority’s attention, and human-made waste. 18 percentage of the world’s population, which resides in India, only has to get entry to 4 percentage of usable water sources. Official statistics in the previous decade depict how annual per capita availability of water in the country has plummeted drastically, with 163 million Indians missing access to protected consuming water.

One of the options to solve the country’s water woes is to create Indian Rivers Inter-link. The National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Ayog), Government of India, has released file ‘Composite Water Management Index’ in June 2018 and listed Delhi and other 21 cities in India that would run out of groundwater by way of 2020.

  • Water scarcity affecting women more than men in India

Water accumulation in India is a woman’s job, irrespective of her real character—and there’s no recess, even when she’s the menstrual cycle, sick, or has something else to do. As groundwater assets are arranged beneath growing stress due to over-dependence and unsustainable utilization, basins, pools, and tanks can also oftentimes dry up, expanding the water disaster and placing a raised concern on women to route lengthy distances. Access to dangerous consuming water additionally effects the unfold of water-borne diseases. And ladies are frequently the first victims of both water scarcity and water pollution.

Water scarcity

In city areas, lengthy queues of women with vibrant plastic water pots are eye-catching. But such pix additionally highlight issues of water shortage and the long waits they suffer for the water tankers that supply it in cities. Women are disproportionately affected by way of the water crisis, as they are frequently accountable for accumulating water. The scarcity of water and hygiene clamps women in a cycle of poverty. Empowering ladies is critical to solving the water crisis. When girls have access to protected water at home, they can pursue more magnificent beyond water series and their standard roles.

Hence Females rank water scarcity higher than men in India.

  • The causes of water scarcity in India

Water sources are contaminated with both biological pollutants. 21% of the country’s diseases are water-related, with solely 33% of us having to get entry to standard sanitation. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture has additionally caused pressure in the resource. In India, most of the water is used for agricultural needs. As India is one of the top agriculture producers in the world, the consumption of water for land and plants is additionally one of the highest. The results of the sizable use of ineffective methods used for irrigation aligned with mismanagement are a few of the reasons for the water deficit.

A considerable component of the water used for industrial and domestic purposes is wasted when again to the streams. The demand for fresh water is growing with the growing population, but the reducing amount of furnish fails to meet the wishes of the people.

To combat this problem, the government issued the Ganga Action Plan published in 1984 to easy up the Ganges River. However, a lot of the river stays polluted with an excessive coliform matter in many places. This is generally due to the lack of protection of the amenities as well as low prices for service. Due to this issue, the urgent need for safe drinking water is 70.1% of the households in city areas. 18.7% in rural acquired, organized pipe water supply, and others have to rely on the surface- and untreated groundwater. As such water is a scarce useful resource in India

  • Measures taken against water scarcity in India

According to an Indian authorities’ report, scientists of India have warned 21 cities will run out groundwater in the 12 months 2020.

Community-led initiatives

With a guide from authorities and UNICEF, villagers in Palve Budruk, positioned in the drought-prone Parner Block in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, developed a catchment format overlaying 1,435 hectares – over 80% of the land available. The device has three check dams, 20 canal bunds, two small percolation tanks linked to the primary container, and 19 village ponds. Water saved in the percolation tank is strictly supposed for home use only. Piped water is supplied for an hour a day in the morning, for the duration of which time households fill up water for ingesting and cooking.

Government-led initiatives

South Korean SIS Seoul International School is fundraising to carry water to India. They have additionally started constructing an active community for the water crisis in India.

Raising awareness

The Canadian start-up Decode Global has developed the cellular game Get Water! A game for social alternate focusing on the water scarcity in India and the effect it has on girls’ education. The game’s principal goal is to elevate cognizance of the water crisis through instructing teenagers as well as adult gamers. To put extra focus on kid’s learning, the enterprise has published a 6-part lesson design for 4-6 grade teachers, accessible for download as a pdf from the game’s website. two

Utilization of groundwater

The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has notified eighty-two areas for the law of groundwater development. In these areas, the set up of new groundwater abstraction buildings is not authorized barring particular prior approval of the Authority / Authorized officer. NOC is now not accorded to such industries, which includes bottled water manufacturing units proposed to be positioned in areas notified through the authority.


Rainwater harvesting – Rainwater is gathered and used for groundwater recharge. This will increase groundwater availability.

Farm ponds are built near the farming land. The rainwater which runs off the floor is amassed through these ponds. These ponds help agriculture in drylands.


After analyzing the gathered data,

India is facing one of its predominant and most serious water crises. After two consecutive years of weak monsoons, 330 million humans — a quarter of the country’s population — are affected by a severe drought. With almost 50 percent of India grappling with drought-like conditions, the state of affairs has been particularly grim this year in western and southern states that acquired under typical rainfall.

Twenty-one chiefs are dashing to reach zero groundwater degrees with the aid of 2020, affecting get admission to for a hundred million people. Nonetheless, 12 percent of Indian citizens are already living in the ‘Day Zero’ scenario, due to excessive groundwater drawing, an incompetent and wasteful water organization machine, and years of deficient rains.


To successfully conclude my findings,

Approximately 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is blanketed in water, and with a number like that, it’s easy to misunderstand the reality of water scarcity. But the fact is, much less than one percent of the Earth’s water is unpolluted, potable, and match for consumption. So, while our continents can also be surrounded by water, sustainable practices and water conservation have in no way been higher necessary to fight the genuine chance of water scarcity.

India’s water crisis is regularly attributed to lack of government planning, increased company privatization, industrial and human waste, and authority’s corruption. Also, the water shortage in India is predicted to irritate as the overall population is expected to amplify to 1.6 billion via the year 2050. To that end, global water shortage is expected to come to be a leading reason for national political conflict in the future, and the prognosis for India is no different.


The discussion with my guidance counselor on this project, it is revealed:

On a high-quality note, some areas of India are lucky to have a notably wet climate, even in the aridest regions. However, with no rain catchment packages in place, most of the water is displaced or dried up as a substitute for using. In these areas, rain harvesting ought to be one solution for water collection. Collected water can be at once used for agriculture, and with extended filtration practices to limit water-borne pathogens, additionally quickly accessible for human consumption.


After discussing this project with friends and peers, they have individual opinions and recommendations. They are given below:

There should be proper measures taken for water scarcity.

The importance of water conservation should be taught in schools.

Men should be more responsible for water conservation.

Awareness should be spread about water scarcity.


My profound gratitude to all the faculty members of the department, for their timely assistance and encouragement throughout my research work.

I duly acknowledge the encouragement and support from the research scholars in the department, and all my colleagues and friends.

It gives me immense pleasure to take the opportunity to all the people who are directly or indirectly involved in the completion of my project based on Females rank scarcity of drinking water as a more environmental severe concern than males do.

With deep reverence, I offer my deepest gratitude _____, without whom this project could not have been fulfilled.

Lastly, I thank Almighty, my parents, family members, friends, and teachers for their constant encouragement and support, without which this project would not be possible.

Name of School/College


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_scarcity_in_India#Causes
  • https://water.org/our-impact/india/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_scarcity
  • https://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/women-and-water
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