- 1 INTRODUCTION:
- 2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
- 3 METHOD AND METHODOLOGY:
- 4 DETAIL REPORT OF PROJECT:
- 5 ANALYSIS OF DATA:
- 6 CONCLUSION:
- 7 DISCUSSION:
- 8 SUGGESTION:
- 9 ACKNOWLEDGMENT:
- 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE:
A farmer(also known as an agriculturer) could be a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term typically applies to people that do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or alternative placental mammal. A farmer would possibly own the farmed land or would possibly work as a laborer toward land in hand by others, however in advanced economies, a farmer is typically a farm owner, whereas workers of the farm are called farm employees, or farmhands. However, within the not thus distant past, a farmer was an individual who promotes or improves the expansion of (a plant, crop, etc.) by labor and a focus, land or crops or raises animals (as placental mammal or fish).
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this project is to visit a farmer & collect information about his agricultural product (RICE) on the basis of cost, investment, price & profit. Analyze the problems faced by him.
There are many objectives of this project. Major few objectives are given below.
- To understand what is rice farming
- To know the process of rice farming
- To understand the various methods of cultivating rice
- To know the profitability of rice farming
- To ascertain any doubts regarding rice farming
METHOD AND METHODOLOGY:
The method used to gather the required information on the project is an internet survey method. The Internet has extensive information on this subject. It has a vast collection of data on rice farming. The survey has unveiled information about this topic which has covered major few points which are listed below and explained in a detailed report of the project.
- What is rice farming
- Requirements to consider for rice farming
- Process of cultivating
- Process of harvesting
- Investment plan
- Problems faced by a farmer for rice cultivation
DETAIL REPORT OF PROJECT:
What is rice farming
Rice is that the main diet or food of India. Mostly, rice cultivation is finished in India similarly as in alternative Asian countries. India is that the main center for rice farming, production, and consumption. In rice production, China at the primary position within the world and India stands within the second position.
Rice may be cereal and it belongs from the liliopsid family. The cultivated rice may be a scientific name for the rice. The native of the rice grain is that the nice Asian rivers, the Ganges, the Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Tigris River and the Euphrates.
The rice plant some grow up to two to six foot tall depends on the range and soil fertility. Rice plant includes a 50–100 cm (20–39 in) long and 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in) broad leaves. The edible rice grain is 5–12 millimeter (0.20–0.47 in) long and 2–3 millimeters (0.079–0.118 in) thick.
In India, rice grains are in the main utilized in South Asian country. Rice is used for the preparation purpose. There are many rice cultivation strategies are out there within the worldwide however In India and most Asian countries, the standard and widespread hand strategies are used for cultivating and gathering of the rice crop.
Today, Latest Machinery is on the market for farmers & with the assistance of recent agricultural machines and their uses, several alternative countries are used these latest machines for planting to gathering in rice cultivation method. These rice farming processes cut back the labor issues and price and farmer will get a lot of profit with the assistance of it.
Requirements to consider for rice farming
Climate demand for Rice Farming
Rice farming needs 20°C to 40°C temperature throughout the life amount of the crop.
It will settle for most 42°C temperature.
Generally, Rice needs hot and wet weather conditions for it’s well to grow.
Rice cultivation is convenient for the realm that has a lush installation, prolonged sunshine, and high wetland is obtainable.
Soil demand for Rice Farming
Rice farming will be done on a special form of soil like as silts, loams, gravels, acidic and alkali soils.
The deep fertile clayey (rich in organic matter) and loamy soils area unit thought of as a perfect soil or growing rice crop.
In rice, farming Propagation is completed through rice seeds.
Process of cultivating
It is the terribly previous and ancient technique for rice farming. In broadcasting, technique seeds are cultivated by hand.
The rice cultivation method is appropriate for the soil that isn’t well fertile and lands are dry. The broadcasting technique needs less labor and inputs. during this technique, you may get the less rice crop yield to compare to the opposite cultivation strategies
In this drilling technique sowing of seeds and land, plowing is often taken by solely 2 persons. This rice sowing technique is usually confined to dry land of India.
This transplantation technique is appropriate for regions wherever soil has smart fertility and overabundant rainfall/irrigation. during this technique initial of all paddy seeds are cultivated in an exceeding nursery. when 5 weeks you’ll get the rice seedlings and it’s prepared for the transplanted within the main field. during this rice cultivation technique, you need a lot of labor and inputs. this is often the most effective yield technique for rice farming.
In this technique, initial of all paddy seeds are cultivated in an exceeding nursery. when 5 weeks you’ll get the rice seedlings and it’s prepared for the transplanted within the main field. This technique needs a lot of labor and inputs. this is often the most effective yield technique for rice farming.
Japanese technique of Rice Cultivation In India
Some Farmers have matter mistreatment this technique. however Is Rice full-grown And Harvested in Japan?
If you’ll use the Japanese technique of rice cultivation, ready to} able to get the high yield sorts of rice during this technique, you’ve got to need significant fertilizers. This technique is additionally applied to the hybrid crop of rice for top yielding.
Process of harvesting
Harvesting in Rice Farming
The harvest is finished for the first or medium rice varieties when twenty-six to thirty days of flowering and for top types of rice, it takes thirty-six to forty days of flowering. Generally, the harvest of the crop is finished once the wet of the rice grain is twenty to twenty-five zip.
Yield in Rice Farming
If you have got a correct cultivation technique, farm management, and soil kind then you’ll get the great yield of a rice crop. you’ll succeed 2500 kg/ha yield of rice crop once you have correct rice cultivation strategies. In India production yield of rice is under another Asian country.
In the Indian market, these rice are terribly demanded. So, you’ll get the great returns from this rice farming. This all info that’s needed for any farmer or capitalist to grow Rice.
The length of growth for Oryza sativa varies from eighty to 280 days and might be typically divided into early (80–130 days), intermediate (130–160 days) and late (160+days) maturing cultivars. within the rice plant, 3 growth parts are often distinguished: the vegetative part – once the plant begins to partition assimilation to the developing raceme; the procreative phases with panicle (flowering) development; and also the ripening or grain-filling phase that begins when growing and ends at maturation. The length of growth for Oryza sativa varies from eighty to 280 days and might be typically divided into early (80–130 days), intermediate (130–160 days) and late (160+days) maturing cultivars. within the rice plant, 3 growth parts are often distinguished: the vegetative part – once the plant begins to partition assimilation to the developing raceme; the procreative phases with panicle (flowering) development; and also the ripening or grain-filling phase that begins when growing and ends at maturation. As an entire, it’s an honest project for entrepreneurs for investment.
Plant capacity: Rice Paddy: 72500 MT/ Annum
Rice Straw as a by-product: 145000 MT/ Annum
Plant & machinery: Rs. 1741 Lakhs
Working capital: –
T.C.I: the value of Project: Rs. 4418 Lakhs
Return: 9.00% Break even: ten.00%
Problems faced by a farmer for rice cultivation
- High worth of fertilizers used on the farms, therefore, preventive production in their farms.
- Costly pesticides/herbicide and ineffective fungicides therefore accrued pests and weeds growing in production areas.
- Lack of practice facilities because of inadequate extension services, therefore, lack of information for the assembly.
- Lack of credit or finance because the major issues throughout the rice crop production stage, therefore, inadequate capabilities to confirm rice production.
- Shortage of water used for canals as the way of crop irrigation in their farms.
- High rent charges of agricultural machinery like combined harvesters, therefore, challenges throughout gather periods.
- Unsatisfactory worth offered of the turn out therefore dispiriting their productivity in rice production.
- Inadequate transport mechanisms, therefore, their rice product don’t seem to be adequately transported to the market and therefore the customers.
- -Dissatisfaction over the initiatives taken by government authorities to resolve the issues two-faced by the rice farmers therefore accrued rice production within the farms.
ANALYSIS OF DATA:
Rice is that the leading food crop within the developing world in terms of total world production. It represents the staple food for a pretty much common fraction of the world’s population. Rice provides twenty-first of worldwide human per capita energy and 15 August 1945 of per capita supermolecule. However, the world’s stocks of hold on rice grain are falling in indirect correlation to every year’s consumption levels that currently exceeds actual annual production. Rice is mostly thought of a semi-aquatic annual grass plant, which may be fully grown below a broad vary of atmospheric condition. rice belongs to the species O.sativa and O.glaberrima. While O.Sativa is the predominant species, O.galberrimais cultivated on a restricted scale and solely incontinent. the most important rice producers in 2010 were China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Burma manufacturing alone over seventy-fifth of the global production. Rice grain contains the edible rice grain of fruit engulfed during a protecting covering, the hull (husk). throughout the edge method, rough rice is polished to provide polished edible grain by 1st subjecting to dehusking then to the removal of dark-brown outer bran layer referred to a change of color. Finally, sprucing is distributed to get rid of the bran particles and provides surface gloss to the edible white portion.
To conclude my findings,
Rice is fully grown by additional folks than the other crop within the world. There are over one hundred forty-four million rice farms worldwide on a harvested space of concerning 158 million hectares. It’s cultivated in a big selection of climates and terrains, by hand or mistreatment large machinery, by little families or massive agricultural firms. The contrasts within the geographic, economic, and social conditions beneath that rice are made are large.
Rice is that the most significant human food crop within the world, directly feeding additional folks than the other crop. In 2012, nearly 1/2 the world’s population – quite three billion folks – relied on rice on a daily basis. It’s additionally the staple food across Asia wherever around 1/2 the world’s poorest folks live and is turning into the progressively vital incontinent and geographical area.
Rice has additionally fed additional folks over an extended time that has the other crop. It’s stunningly various, each within the manner it’s fully grown and the way it’s utilized by humans. Rice is exclusive as a result of it will grow in wet environments that alternative crops cannot survive in. Such wet environments area unit easy across Asia. The domestication of rice ranks joined of the foremost vital developments in history and currently thousands of rice varieties area unit cultivated on each continent except continent.
The discussion has revealed:
Global rice production over tripled between 1961 and 2010, with a compound rate of growth of two.24% p.a. (2.21% in rice-producing Asia). This increase was slightly bigger than that for wheat (2.02% per year), however considerably but that for maize, that grew at two.71% p.a. Most of the rise in rice production was because of higher yields, that exaggerated at an annual average rate of one.74%, compared with an annual average rate of growth of zero.49% for space harvested. In absolute terms, paddy yields exaggerated at an annual average rate of fifty-one.1 kg/ha p.a., though this rate of increase has declined in each share and absolute terms.
There are a few opinions and suggestions by family and friends whom I discussed my project findings with, they are given below:
- Farmers should be given more help to cultivate crops
- Farmers need to use good quality of fertilizers in their farm
- Farmers need to be given special privileges by the government.
My profound gratitude to all the faculty members of the Department, for their timely assistance and encouragement throughout my research work.
I duly acknowledge the encouragement and support from the research scholars in the department, and all my colleagues and friends.
It gives me immense pleasure to take the opportunity to all the people who are directly or indirectly involved in the completion of my project based on Visit a farmer & collect information about his agricultural product on the basis of cost, investment, price & profit. Analyze the problems faced by him.
With deep reverence, I offer my deepest gratitude _____, without whom this project could not have been fulfilled.
Lastly, I thank Almighty, my parents, family members, friends and teachers for their constant encouragement and support without which this project would not be possible.
Name of School/College
BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE: