12th CommerceEnvironment Education EVSHSC Projects

Project On Farmers Suicide In India – Class 12


I want to sincerely thank everyone who has donated to this study on farmer suicides in India, both people and organisations. I want to start by thanking the farmers’ families who have been impacted by this problem. Their fortitude and tenacity have motivated me to carry out my investigation and hunt for solutions to the issue.

I also want to express my gratitude to the academics, NGOs, government employees, and researchers who have committed their time and money to studying the problem of farmer suicides and attempting to prevent it. Their advice and knowledge have been crucial in determining this project’s course.

I am also appreciative of the many sources, including the books, papers, websites, and databases, that have given me important knowledge on this subject. I want to thank them for their work in developing and maintaining these materials.

Last but not least, I want to express my gratitude to my family and friends for their unwavering support and inspiration during the project. My motivation and focus have been maintained in large part by their support and encouragement.

We appreciate your support and donations, everyone.

Who Is The Farmer

A farmer is a person who raises crops, cattle, or other agricultural products with the intention of selling them on the open market. Small and marginal farmers with land holdings of under two hectares make up the bulk of farmers in India. These farmers rely on agriculture for their livelihood and deal with a variety of issues such limited loan availability, poor infrastructure, and unreliable weather.

In India, farming is frequently a family business where several generations coexist on the property. Typically, farmers raise livestock like cows, buffaloes, goats, and lambs or grow crops like rice, wheat, maize, cotton, and sugarcane. Over 50% of the workforce in India is employed in the agriculture industry, which also accounts for about 17% of the nation’s GDP.

Defining Suicide

The deliberate taking of one’s own life is referred to as suicide. It is a serious and complicated problem with potential for major effects on people, families, and communities. Numerous causes, including mental health issues including depression and anxiety, substance misuse, social isolation, financial hardship, and interpersonal issues, might contribute to suicide.

Over 700,000 suicide deaths globally occur each year, making it a significant public health risk, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Certain populations are more vulnerable to suicide than others, and suicide rates vary by country, age, gender, and other factors.

Suicide prevention calls for an all-encompassing strategy that addresses the root causes of suicidal behaviour and gives people the tools and support they require to overcome these obstacles. This can include crisis hotlines, social support groups, mental health services, and other suicide prevention measures.

Causes Of Suicide

There are several reasons why someone might think about or actually commit suicide. These may consist of:

Mental health issues: Suicidal behaviour is more likely in people who have depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and other mental health issues.

Abuse of substances: Abuse of substances, such as alcohol and drugs, can raise the risk of suicide.

Relationship issues: Issues with relationships, such as splits, divorces, or family strife, can raise the risk of suicidal behaviour.

Financial stress: Debt and unemployment are two sources of financial stress that might raise the risk of suicide.

Physical health issues: Suicidal behaviour may be more likely in people who have chronic pain, a terminal illness, or other physical health issues.

Trauma or abuse: Being subjected to traumatic experiences or abuse, such as sexual or domestic abuse, can raise one’s chance of engaging in suicide behaviour.

Social isolation: Lack of social support or social isolation can raise the likelihood of suicidal behaviour.

It is crucial to remember that suicide is a complicated issue with a variety of potential causes. Suicidal behaviour can have many different causes, thus treating it frequently calls for an all-encompassing strategy that takes into consideration each person’s particular needs and circumstances.

Why Should We Discuss Farmers’ Rights? SUICIDES

We should discuss farmer suicides in India for a number of reasons:

Humanitarian concern: The tragic loss of human life and suicides among farmers are a humanitarian issue. The community as a whole is significantly impacted by these suicides in addition to the individuals and their families.

Economic impact: Farmers’ suicides can have a considerable influence on the nation’s agricultural output and economic growth. Agriculture is a key industry for India’s economy.

Public health concern: Farmers’ suicides are a public health concern, and identifying the root causes of these suicides can aid in the creation of successful interventions and preventative measures.

Social justice: Issues of social justice, such as land rights, financial availability, and government regulations that may harm small and marginal farmers, are frequently associated to farmer suicides.

Awareness and advocacy: Talking about farmer suicides can assist spread awareness of the problem and encourage lobbying for legislation changes and initiatives that will aid farmers in need and avoid farmer suicides.

In general, talking about farmer suicides is essential to addressing the problem and identifying workable ways to stop these tragedies from happening.


Beginning in the early 1990s, India has seen a long-standing and complicated problem with farmer suicides. Significant changes in the agricultural sector, including the adoption of new technology and the liberalisation of markets, were brought about by the liberalisation of India’s economy in the 1990s. Farmers were impacted by these changes in both favourable and unfavourable ways.

On the plus side, some farmers saw a boost in productivity and incomes as a result of the new technologies and market prospects. Many small and marginal farmers, however, who were unable to compete in the new market environment, suffered as a result of the reforms.

Lack of access to financing, high levels of debt, low pricing for agricultural products, crop failure due to drought or other weather-related catastrophes, and insufficient government help are some of the factors that have led to the problem of farmer suicides in India.

In the early 2000s, the problem of farmer suicides attracted widespread attention, with Maharashtra being one of the most hit states. In response to the crisis, the government started a number of programmes to deal with the underlying problems, such as debt reduction plans, crop insurance, and assistance for alternate forms of employment.

Despite these initiatives, farmer suicides remain a serious problem in India, where thousands of farmers commit suicide each year. In order to address the underlying reasons and stop further deaths, the issue still requires constant attention and action from the government, civic society, and other stakeholders.

Suicide Statistics Among Farmers

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reports that 10,281 farmer suicides occurred in India in 2019, making up 7.4% of all suicides that occurred there. Even though there have been fewer farmer suicides recently, the problem is still a major one in a number of states, including Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.

Given that many suicides go undetected or are incorrectly classified, it is crucial to emphasise that these numbers likely understate the true number of farmer suicides. Furthermore, due to variances in reporting and the complexity of the problem, data on it can be challenging to gather and analyse.

Although there are many different and intricate reasons why farmers commit suicide, it’s common to attribute them to things like crop failure, drought, debt, and a lack of access to financing and government assistance. Policymakers, civil society, and other stakeholders must continue to pay attention to and take action to address the problem of farmer suicides in India.

The Main Characteristics Of Suicides

Despite the complexity and diversity of the causes of farmer suicides in India, there are several similar characteristics that are frequently present in the vast majority of cases. These consist of:

Debt: A significant amount of debt is a typical factor in many farmer suicides. Due to weak yields or low market prices, farmers frequently borrow money to pay for seeds, fertiliser, and other inputs but are afterwards unable to repay their loans.

Crop failure: Farmers, especially those who have taken out loans to finance their crops, might suffer a great deal from crop failure brought on by drought, floods, or other weather-related calamities.

Lack of access to credit: Many small and marginal farmers in India do not have easy access to credit, which makes it challenging for them to finance agricultural improvements or deal with unforeseen costs.

Poor mental health: When farmers are dealing with financial troubles or other stressors, mental health problems including depression, anxiety, and stress can also play a role in farmer suicides.

Social and cultural factors: Caste, gender, and land ownership difficulties, as well as social and cultural norms, can all have an impact on farmer suicides.

While these characteristics are frequently present in farmer suicide cases, it is crucial to remember that every situation is different and calls for a thorough knowledge of the needs and circumstances of the person in order to build successful prevention and intervention techniques.

Incomplete Policies

Another important aspect causing the problem of farmer suicides in India is bad policy. Policies that have been accused of making the problem worse include:

Inadequate minimum support prices: The government purchases crops from farmers at a set price known as the minimum support price (MSP). The MSP, however, has frequently come under fire for being too low and failing to provide farmers with enough cash to pay their expenses.

Biased crop insurance policies: Crop insurance policies have also come under fire for being unfair to small and marginal farmers, who frequently have poor access to credit and are more susceptible to crop failures.

Reduced government spending on agriculture: Government funding on agriculture has decreased in recent years in India, which has resulted in a decrease in the government’s assistance for farmers.

Poor welfare programme implementation: Several welfare programmes have been put in place to support farmers, however due to poor programme implementation, many farmers have not been able to get the benefits.

Poor implementation of welfare schemes: Policies relating to land acquisition have also come under fire for displacing farmers and restricting their access to land.

Neglect of dryland farming: Government policies have neglected dryland farming, which is practised in arid and semi-arid regions, which has resulted in a reduction in agricultural production and incomes.

It is crucial to keep in mind that sometimes agricultural policy can have unforeseen repercussions. Given that small and marginal farmers are the most susceptible to economic and environmental shocks, addressing the issue of farmer suicides in India necessitates careful assessment of the potential effects of policies on these farmers.

Girl Child

In India, the problem of farmer suicides has a variety of effects on women and girls. They are impacted in a variety of ways, including:

Increased responsibility for agricultural work: Because male family members are frequently the main breadwinners, women and young girls are disproportionately responsible for farm work. They may be overworked and underpaid as a result, which can result in high stress levels and poor mental health.

Limited educational opportunities: Farming families frequently place a higher value on investing in the education of their sons than they do on the education of their daughters. Their limited social and economic mobility results in a cycle of poverty that is hard to break.

Forced young marriages: Families experiencing financial hardship may also decide to wed off their daughters at a young age, which can have a detrimental impact on their health and wellbeing.

Limited access to healthcare: Poor health outcomes can result from women and girl children in farming households’ restricted access to healthcare, which can exacerbate pre-existing health problems.

Social stigma: Women whose husbands have committed suicide may experience prejudice and social stigma, which makes it difficult for them to get remarried or get social help.

It is necessary to address the structural causes of poverty and marginalisation, such as gender-based discrimination and restricted access to healthcare and education, in order to alleviate the problem of farmer suicides in India. It also necessitates identifying the particular difficulties encountered by women and young girls in farming families and putting in place customised interventions to meet those needs.

Revolutionary Green

The goal of the 1960s-era Green Revolution, a period of intensive agricultural research and development, was to raise agricultural production in emerging nations like India. The Green Revolution increased agricultural output and decreased food insecurity, but it also had unforeseen effects that exacerbated the problem of farmer suicides in India. Some examples of these effects are:

Dependence on high-input agriculture: The Green Revolution encouraged the use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers, which enhanced crop yields but also raised prices for farmers. Because they can’t afford the high input costs, farmers that rely on high-input agriculture are suffering economically.

Unsustainable farming methods: The Green Revolution also encouraged unsustainable farming methods, such as extensive monoculture farming and excessive water use, which have led to soil degradation and water scarcity and exacerbated the effects of climate change.

Land ownership concentration: The Green Revolution also helped wealthier farmers control more land, further marginalising small and marginal farmers who have little access to resources and assistance.

Displacement of indigenous crops: The promotion of high-yielding crop varieties resulted in the displacement of indigenous crops, which were frequently more culturally and nutritionally significant and better matched to local environmental conditions.

A transition to just and sustainable agricultural methods that put small and marginal farmers’ needs first and support biodiversity and resilience is necessary to address the problem of farmer suicides in India. This necessitates addressing the legacy of the Green Revolution and advancing alternative agricultural development strategies that are grounded in social justice and ecological ideals.


One of the main causes of the problem of farmer suicides in India is indebtedness. Small and marginal farmers frequently use credit to support their agricultural activities, but they may have trouble getting it because there aren’t any formal financial institutions in rural areas and there isn’t much in the way of collateral. As a result, people have come to rely on shady lenders and traders, who frequently charge exorbitant interest rates and engage in unfair business practises.

Furthermore, due to outside influences like crop failures, natural disasters, and changes in market pricing, farmers may get caught in debt cycles. Many farmers may believe that suicide is their only choice when they are burdened with rising debt and the inability to repay their loans.

The systemic causes of farmers’ reliance on unofficial lending sources and the encouragement of debt traps must be addressed in order to address the problem of farmer suicides brought on by debt. This entails encouraging rural residents’ access to formal credit and financial institutions and putting laws and programmes in place to aid small and marginal farmers during difficult times. To support long-term resilience and stability in the agricultural sector, it also necessitates tackling the underlying causes of agricultural distress, including unsustainable agricultural practises and market instability.

Rationale For Indemnity

Farmers in India may incur debt for a number of reasons, including:

Cost of inputs: As the price of inputs like seeds, fertiliser, and pesticides has risen over time, it has become more difficult for farmers to afford them, who frequently have to take out loans.

Failure of the crop: Farmers are at risk for crop failures because of things like drought, floods, pests, and illnesses, which can cause a loss of income and make it difficult for them to pay back loans.

Market volatility: Farmers frequently sell their food to middlemen or at cheap prices because of overproduction or a lack of consumer demand. This can result in a drop in income and the inability to pay back loans.

Lack of institutional credit: Many small and marginal farmers are unable to obtain formal credit from banks or other financial organisations. As a result, they are forced to rely on high-interest informal sources of loan.

Medical emergencies: Farmers could experience unanticipated medical emergencies that force them to borrow money and increase their debt.

Social duties: Farmers in India may also be required to borrow money and add to their debt in order to fulfil social obligations like weddings or funerals.

By addressing these underlying structural causes of debt, boosting access to formal credit and financial institutions in rural regions, and putting policies and programmes in place to assist small and marginal farmers during difficult times, we may address the problem of debt. To support long-term stability in the agricultural industry, it also necessitates developing sustainable agriculture practises and tackling market volatility.

Tropical Failure

An important cause of the problem of farmer suicides in India is crop failure. India’s agriculture is predominantly rain-fed, and the nation frequently experiences floods and droughts, which can cause crop failures. Crop failures can also be brought on by things like pest infestations, degraded soil, and a lack of availability to high-quality seeds and fertilisers, in addition to natural calamities.

Farmers that have crop failures may lose income and be unable to pay back loans or fulfil other financial commitments. Farmers’ financial plight may occasionally be made worse by the need to sell their assets, like land or cattle, in order to pay off their debts. As a result, debt and poverty may spiral out of control, resulting in hopelessness and, in the worst cases, suicide.

The root causes of agricultural distress must be addressed in order to prevent farmer suicides brought on by crop failures. Some of these causes include promoting sustainable agricultural practises, making high-quality seeds and fertilisers available, and creating irrigation infrastructure to lessen the effects of droughts and floods. It also necessitates the implementation of laws and plans to assist farmers in times of need, such as crop insurance and financial aid to lessen the financial toll crop failures take on farmers’ livelihoods.


The effects of farmer suicides in India are extensive, affecting not just the victims’ families but also the wider community and the country’s economy as a whole. Some of the major effects are as follows:

Economic effects: The death of a breadwinner can significantly affect the family’s finances, especially in rural areas where agriculture serves as the main source of income. Additionally, it may result in the loss of productive assets like land, animals, and equipment, which would worsen the economic effects.

Social repercussions: The suicide of a farmer can have a significant social repercussion on the neighbourhood, especially in small rural communities where farming is a way of life. It may cause a feeling of helplessness and despair, which may exacerbate the problem of farmer suicides.

Psychological effects: Surviving family members who commit suicide often experience severe psychological effects, especially children and young people. It may result in feelings of regret, humiliation, and depression, which may make the problem of suicide in the community even worse.

Impact on politics: In India, farmer suicides have developed into a contentious political topic, with numerous political parties utilising it as a recruiting tool. In order to address the underlying causes of agricultural distress, it has prompted calls for policy modifications and government action.

Impact on agriculture: When farmers commit suicide, their land may go fallow or be sold to non-farmers, which can lower productivity. This may worsen the problem of agricultural distress and cause a drop in rural incomes.

The impact of farmer suicides in India is enormous overall, and politicians, civic society, and the general public must move quickly to address the underlying causes of agricultural misery and support farmers’ sustainable lives.

Preventive Measures

A multifaceted strategy that addresses the multiple underlying causes of agricultural hardship is necessary to prevent farmer suicides in India. Some of the most important precautions that can be taken are listed below:

Promoting sustainable agriculture practices: The impact of natural disasters like droughts and floods on crop yields can be minimised by promoting sustainable agriculture practises including organic farming, crop rotation, and water collection.

Increasing credit availability: To invest in their farms and guarantee a steady income, farmers need to have access to credit that is reasonable. This can be accomplished by taking steps like boosting the coverage of crop insurance and providing loan waivers and interest rate subsidies.

constructing irrigation infrastructure: By building irrigation infrastructure, farmers may protect their income by reducing the damage that droughts and floods do to their crops.

Providing access to high-quality inputs: Access to high-quality inputs can help farmers produce more crops and experience fewer crop failures by giving them access to high-quality seeds, fertilisers, and insecticides.

Strengthening social safety nets: In times of economic hardship, farmers may be able to turn to alternative sources of income thanks to the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).

Addressing gender disparities: Gender gaps in access to resources like financing and land should be addressed in order to improve the economic standing of women farmers and lessen their susceptibility to agricultural hardship.

Increasing awareness: Farmers’ suicide rates can be lowered by increasing knowledge about mental health issues and granting access to counselling services.

Overall, avoiding farmer suicides in India necessitates a multifaceted strategy that takes into account the different root causes of agricultural hardship and supports farmers’ sustainable livelihoods. Collaboration between a number of stakeholders, such as policymakers, civic society, and the general public, is necessary.

Rehabilitative Measures

Another crucial component of tackling farmer suicides in India is rehabilitation programmes. Some of the most important rehabilitation steps that can be followed are as follows:

Providing financial assistance to affected families: Providing financial aid to afflicted families will help ease their financial hardship and guarantee that their most basic needs are satisfied. Financial aid can be given to the families of farmers who have committed suicide.

Providing education and vocational training to family members: Family members of farmers who committed suicide may benefit from receiving education and job-related training. This will increase their employability and give them the means to secure steady earnings.

Providing healthcare facilities: Healthcare institutions can help afflicted families with their physical and mental health needs as well as aid in their recovery from the trauma of losing a loved one.

Strengthening support networks: Support networks like self-help groups and agricultural producer organisations can help impacted families receive both emotional and monetary support.

Taking care of land rights issues: By taking care of land rights issues, farmers can have secure tenure over their land and avoid being compelled to sell it because of financial hardship.

Strengthening legal assistance: Farmers who are being exploited or harassed by moneylenders or middlemen may be able to access legal recourse with the use of stronger legal assistance.

In general, rehabilitation programmes are a crucial component of fighting farmer suicides in India. They can aid in reducing the negative effects of agricultural hardship on impacted households and help them start over.


When it comes to resolving farmer suicides in India, the government can play a significant role. Some of the most important acts the government can do are listed below:

Increasing investment in agriculture: Increasing investment in agriculture can assist increase agricultural output and lower the likelihood of crop failures, which will lessen farmers’ susceptibility to financial hardship.

Access to finance: Giving farmers inexpensive credit options can help them invest in their operations and guarantee a steady flow of income.

Promoting sustainable agriculture practices: Promoting sustainable agricultural practices can help lessen the impact of natural catastrophes on crop yields by encouraging practises such organic farming, crop rotation, and water collection.

constructing irrigation infrastructure: By building irrigation infrastructure, farmers may protect their income by reducing the damage that droughts and floods do to their crops.

Strengthening social safety nets: In times of economic hardship, farmers may be able to turn to alternative sources of income thanks to the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).

Addressing gender disparities: Gender gaps in access to resources like financing and land should be addressed in order to improve the economic standing of women farmers and lessen their susceptibility to agricultural hardship.

Strengthening legal assistance: Farmers who are being exploited or harassed by moneylenders or middlemen may be able to access legal recourse with the use of stronger legal assistance.

Overall, by adopting a multi-pronged strategy that addresses the multiple underlying causes of agricultural distress and supports sustainable livelihoods for farmers, the government may play a significant role in reducing farmer suicides in India.


In conclusion, farmer suicides in India continue to be a serious problem that needs immediate action. The problem is intricate and varied, and it has a number of underlying causes, including agricultural failures, debt, and poor policy. Farmer suicides have a catastrophic effect on the entire agricultural community as well as the afflicted families.

It is crucial to address the problem through both preventive and remedial measures, such as encouraging sustainable agricultural practises, bolstering social safety nets, and offering impacted families financial and medical support. By investing in agriculture, facilitating access to credit, and addressing gender gaps in resource access, the government may play a critical role in solving the problem.

All parties involved—farmers, governments, civil society organisations, and the general public—must work together to combat farmer suicides in India. Together, we can build a more just and long-lasting agricultural system that puts the welfare of farmers and their families first.

Certificate of Completion

This is to certify that I, [Your Name], a student of Class 12 at [Your School’s Name], have successfully completed the project on “Farmers’ Suicide in India. ” This project was conducted as a part of my academic curriculum, and it aimed to bring attention to the critical issue of farmer suicides in our country.

Throughout the duration of this project, I have earnestly researched and explored the multifaceted aspects of this pressing problem. The project covers various essential elements, including the causes of farmer suicides, the impact on their families and communities, and the measures that can be taken to prevent and address this grave issue.

I express my sincere gratitude to my mentors and teachers, who guided me throughout the project and provided valuable insights and feedback. Their encouragement and support have been instrumental in shaping the outcome of this endeavor.

Furthermore, I extend my heartfelt appreciation to the farmers’ families who have been affected by this distressing problem. Their resilience and courage have inspired me to investigate and seek solutions to this grave issue affecting our agricultural community.

I am also deeply grateful to the numerous sources, including books, research papers, websites, and databases, which have provided me with invaluable knowledge on this subject. These resources have significantly contributed to the depth and understanding of the project.

Additionally, I want to thank the individuals and organizations who generously donated to this study on farmer suicides in India. Their support has made this project possible and underscores the significance of addressing this matter.

Lastly, I am indebted to my family and friends for their unwavering encouragement and motivation during the project. Their constant support has been the driving force behind my commitment to shed light on the plight of our farmers and find ways to prevent such tragedies.

I believe that through awareness and collective efforts, we can work towards a more equitable and sustainable agricultural system, ensuring the well-being of our farmers and their families.

[Your Name]Class 12, [Your School’s Name][Date]
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